Saturday, November 30, 2019

The Courage of Leaena: Pliny, Nat. Hist. XXXIV.19.12

Tisicratis Leaena laudatur. [Paelex] haec lyrae cantu familiare Harmodio et Aristogitoni, consilia eorum de tyrannicidio, usque ad mortem excrutiata a tyraniis, non prodidit. Quamobrem Athenienses et honorem habere ei volentes, nec tamen [paelicem] celebrasse, animal nominis eius fecere: atque ut intelligeretur causa honoris, in opere linguam addi ab artifice vetuereunt. 

--Pliny the Elder, Nat. Hist. XXXIV.19.12

Many people praise Tisicrates' statue of Leaena. She was a courtesan and entertainer specializing in singing and the lyre who was close with Harmodius and Aristogeiton; she kept secret their plot to kill the tyrant, not betraying their plans even when tortured to the point of  death.  Because of her courage, the Athenians wanted to honor her. Not willing to celebrating her profession, they made a statue of an animal with her same name, i.e., a lioness. To further honor her courage, they made the artist make the statue lacking a tongue.*

* According to tradition, Leaena bit off her own tongue to thwart her interrogators.

PLINY THE ELDER
MAP:
Name:  Gaius Plinius Secundus
Date:  23 – 79 CE
Works:  Naturalis Historia*

REGION  1
Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans

BIO:
Timeline:
 Pliny was an Italian-born Roman statesman and author who lived during the reigns of the early Roman emperors. He spent most of his life in service of his country; he ultimately gave his life in arranging the evacuation of the regions devastated by the eruption of Mt. Vesuvius in 79 CE. His work, the Natural History, is a 37-volume collection of art, history, and science of the ancient world.
 GOLDEN AGE ROME
Early Roman Lit: through 2nd c BCE: Republican Rome: through 1st c. BCE; Golden Age: 70 BCE to 18 CE; Silver Age: 18 CE to 150 CE; Age of Conflict: 150 CE - 410 CE; Byzantine and Late Latin: after 410 CE

Just Say No: Virgo's Origin Story, Part II: Ovid, Metam. 1.149 - 150

Victa iacet pietas, et virgo caede madentis
ultima caelestum terras Astraea reliquit.

--Ovid, Metamorphoses, I.149-150

And in the end, when Piety lay crushed in defeat,
the maiden Astraea, the last of the divinities,
left the realm of humanity still dripping with blood.

OVID
MAP:
Name: Publius Ovidius Naso  
Date:  43 BCE – 18 CE
Works:  Ars Amatoria
               Metamorphoses*
              Tristia, etc.

REGION  1
Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans

BIO:
Timeline:
Ovid was one of the most famous love poets of Rome’s Golden Age. His most famous work, the Metamorphoses, provides a history of the world through a series of interwoven myths. Most of his poetry is erotic in nature; for this reason, he fell into trouble during the conservative social reforms under the reign of the emperor Augustus. In 8 CE he was banished to Bithynia, where he spent the remainder of his life pining for his native homeland.
 GOLDEN AGE ROME
Early Roman Lit: through 2nd c BCE: Republican Rome: through 1st c. BCE; Golden Age: 70 BCE to 18 CE; Silver Age: 18 CE to 150 CE; Age of Conflict: 150 CE - 410 CE; Byzantine and Late Latin: after 410 CE


Just Say No: Virgo's Origin Story, Hyginus, De Astr. II.25

VIRGO: Hanc Hesiodus Iovis et Themidis filiam dicit; Aratus autem Astraei et Aurorae filiam existimari, quae eodem tempore fuerit cum aurea saecula hominum, et eorum principem fuisse demonstrat. Quam propter diligentiam et aequitatem Iustitiam appellatam; neque illo tempore ab hominibus exteras nationes bello lacessitas esse, neque navigio quemquam usum, sed agris colendis vitam agere consuesse. Sed post eorum obitum qui sint nati, eos minus officiosos, magis avaros coepisse fieri; quare minus Iustitiam inter homines fuisse conversatam. Denique causam pervenisse usque eo, dum diceretur aeneum genus hominum natum. Itaque iam non potuisse pati amplius et ad sidera evolasse. 

--Hyginus, de Astronomica II.25

THE CONSTELLATION VIRGO: Hesiod states that the constellation Virgo represents the daughter of Jupiter & Themis [Justice]. Aratus, however, thinks that it represents the daughter of Astraeus and Aurora [Eos, the goddess of the dawn], who existed during the Golden Age of Mankind, and was their leader. Because of her duty and fairness, she was also called "Justice."  For at that time there was no threat to external war, there was no need for foreign trade or sea travel; everyone just lived off of the fruits of their own land. But after that age ended, the following generations were less able to mind their own business, and became greedy; therefore Justice was accustomed to dwell among humans less and less. Finally it got so bad that it became known as the "Bronze Age of Mankind." No longer able to endure the wretchedness of mankind, Justice flew off into the stars.

HYGINUS
MAP:
Name: Gaius Julius Hyginus
Date: 64 BCE – 17 CE
Works: Fabulae
               De Astronomica*

REGION 1 / 4
Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans

BIO:
Timeline:
Hyginus was a freedman of the Roman emperor Augustus who was in charge of the Imperial library on the Palatine Hill in Rome. His work, the Fabulae, are a sourcebook for Greek and Roman myths. Although there is quite a bit of overlap between his writings and his contemporary and friend Ovid’s Metamorphoses, Hyginus’ works are much more succinct.
GOLDEN AGE ROME
Early Roman Lit: through 2nd c BCE: Republican Rome: through 1st c. BCE; Golden Age: 70 BCE to 18 CE; Silver Age: 18 CE to 150 CE; Age of Conflict: 150 CE - 410 CE; Byzantine and Late Latin: after 410 CE

Friday, November 29, 2019

M/M: Achilles and Patroclus Before the War at Troy, Statius, Achilleid I.172-177

...ut fido genetrix in limine visa est,
abicit exceptamque avidis circumligat ulnis,
iam gravis amplexu iamque aequus vertice matri.
Insequitur magno iam tunc conexus amore
Patroclus tantisque extenditur aemulus actis,
par studiis aevique modis, sed robore longe,
et tamen aequali visurus Pergama fato.


--Statius, Achilleid I.172-177

As soon as his mother [Thetis] appeared in the doorway, Achilles tossed aside what he was doing and threw his arms around her excitedly, revealing to her with his embrace that he already matched her in height.
Soon thereafter Patroclus followed suit. Already they were joined in deep love for each other. Paris strove to rival his love in whatever he did, and he nearly could: they were equal in training, equal in habits, but Patroclus remained  nowhere near as strong as Achilles. Despite this, he would join Achilles on his quest to Troy, and together both would meet their doom.

STATIUS
MAP:
Name:  Publius Papinius Statius
Date:  45 – 96 CE
Works:  Achilleid*
               Silvae
               Thebaid

REGION  1
Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans

BIO:
Timeline:
One of the most influential epic poets of the Silver Age, Statius spent most of his life in Naples, Italy. His most famous work, the Thebaid, is an epic poem that describes the civil war between the descendants of Oedipus; he also wrote the Achilleid, a short epic on the boyhood of Achilles.
 SILVER AGE LATIN
Early Roman Lit: through 2nd c BCE: Republican Rome: through 1st c. BCE; Golden Age: 70 BCE to 18 CE; Silver Age: 18 CE to 150 CE; Age of Conflict: 150 CE - 410 CE; Byzantine and Late Latin: after 410 CE

Losing Half of the Team: Polynices' Loss of Tydeus, Statius, Theb.IX.82-85

ducitur amisso qualis consorte laborum
deserit inceptum media inter iugera sulcum
Taurus iners colloque iugum deforme remisso
parte trahit, partem lacrimans sustentat arator.

--simile on Polynices' loss of Tydeus, Statius, Theb. IX.82 - 85

He is led away [from his friend's slain body] like a bull
who has just its yoke-mate, the companion of its labors.
It walks away from the furrow it had begun, leaving the job unfinished,
with lowered head, it drags the now empty half-yoke,
while a crying farmer struggles to hold up the other half.
STATIUS
MAP:
Name:  Publius Papinius Statius
Date:  45 – 96 CE
Works:  Achilleid
               Silvae
               Thebaid*

REGION  1
Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans

BIO:
Timeline:
One of the most influential epic poets of the Silver Age, Statius spent most of his life in Naples, Italy. His most famous work, the Thebaid, is an epic poem that describes the civil war between the descendants of Oedipus; he also wrote the Achilleid, a short epic on the boyhood of Achilles.
 SILVER AGE LATIN
Early Roman Lit: through 2nd c BCE: Republican Rome: through 1st c. BCE; Golden Age: 70 BCE to 18 CE; Silver Age: 18 CE to 150 CE; Age of Conflict: 150 CE - 410 CE; Byzantine and Late Latin: after 410 CE

Let Each One Sing of Whomever They Love; Nemesianus Eclog. IV

***For a Lesson Plan on teaching this text, click here***

Populea Lycidas nec non et Mopsus in umbra
pastores, calamis ac versu doctus uterque
nec triviale sonans, proprios cantabat amores.
Nam Mopso Meroe, Lycidae crinitus Iollas
ignis erat; parilisque furor de dispare sexu
cogebat trepidos totis discurrere silvis
hos puer ac Meroe multum lusere furentes,
dum modo condictas vitant in vallibus ulmos
nun fagos placitas fugiunt promissaque fallunt
antra nec est animus solitos alludere fontes.
Cum tandem fessi, quos dirus adederat ignis,
sic sua desertis nudarunt vulnera silvis
inque vicem dulces cantu luxere querellas.


Mopsus: Immitis Meroe rapidisque fugacior Euris,
cur nostros calamos, cur pastoralia vitas
carmina? Quemve fugis? Quae me tibi gloria victo?
Quid vultu mentem premis ac spem fronte serenas?
Tandem, dura, nega: possum non velle negantem.

CANTET, AMAT QUOD QUISQUE: LEVANT ET CARMINA CURAS.

LYCIDAS: Respice me tandem, puer, o crudelis Iolla.
Non hoc semper eris: perdunt et gramina flores,
perdit spina rosas nec semper lilia candent
nec longum tenet uva comas nec populus umbras:
donum forma breve est nec se quod commodet annis.
CANTET, AMAT QUOD QUISQUE: LEVANT ET CARMINA CURAS.



MOPSUS: Cerva marem sequitur, taurum formosa iuvenca
et Venerem sensere lupae, sensere leaenae
et genus aerium volucres et squamea turba
et montes silvaeque suos habet arbor amores:
tu tamen una fugis, miserum tu prodis amantem
CANTET, AMAT QUOD QUISQUE: LEVANT ET CARMINA CURAS.



LYCIDAS: Omnia tempus alit, tempus rapit: usus in arto est.
Ver erat, et vitulos vidi sub matribus istos,
qui nunc pro nivea coiere in cornua vacca.
Et tibi iam tumidae nares et fortia colla
iam tibi bis denis numerantur messibus anni.
CANTAT, AMAT QUOD QUISQUE: LEVANT ET CARMINA CURAS.

MOPSUS: Huc, Meroe formosa, veni: vocat aestus in umbram.
Iam pecudes subiere nemus iam nulla canoro
gutture cantat avis, torto non squamea tractu
signat humum serpens. Solus cano: Me sonat omnis
silva, nec aestivis cantu concedo cicadis.
CANTAT, AMAT QUOD QUISQUE: LEVANT ET CARMINA CURAS.

LYCIDAS: Tu quoque, saeve puer, niveum ne perde colorem
sole sub hoc: solet hic lucentes urere malas.
Hic age, pampinea mecum requiesce sub umbra:
hic tibi lene fluens fons murmurat, hic et ab ulmis purpureae fetis dependent vitibus uvae
CANTET, AMAT QUOD QUISQUE: LEVANT ET CARMINA CURAS.


MOPSUS: Qui tulerit Meroes fastidia lenta superbae,
Sithonias feret ille nives Libyaeque calorem
Nerinas potabit aquas taxique nocentis
non metuet sucos, Sardorum gramina vincet
et iuga Marmaricos coget sua ferre leones.
CANTET, AMAT QUOD QUISQUE: LEVANT ET CARMINA CURAS.


LYCIDAS: Quisquis amat pueros, ferro praecordia duret,
nil properet discatque diu patienter amare
prudentesque animos teneris non spernat in annis,
perferat et fastus. Sic olim gaudia sumet,
si modo sollicitos aliquis deus audit amantes.
CANTET, AMAT QUOD QUISQUE: LEVANT ET CARMINA CURAS.



--Nemesianus, Eclogues IV

Two shepherds, Lycidas and Mopsus, both skilled in panpipes and song,
were lounging in a poplar grove, singing in disharmony.
Both were singing of their own true love:
for Mopsus burned for the lady Meroe,
and Lycidas burned for luscious-locked lad Iollas.
Their same level of passion for different sexes
made them wander the forests anxiously.
Meroe and Iollas [puer] mocked these poets for their passion,
avoiding the elm groves in the valleys, fleeing the beech trees,
the caves they were accustomed to make out in,
the peaceful fountains, standing up their dates,
leaving both poets forlorn and alone.
Finally tired of being treated this way
and consumed by their unrequited fiery passion,
the poets aired out their grievances,
singing in turn their own sweet complaints:

MOPSUS: Hard-hearted Meroe, more elusive than the swift East Wind,
why do you avoid my panpipes, why do you avoid my shepherd's songs?
Or whom are you avoiding?
What pride do you take in completely destroying me?
Why do you hide your thoughts with your poker-face, putting hope upon your brow?
Hard-hearted one, stop leading me on!
I can learn to stop wanting you.
Let each one sing of whomever they love;
songs can lighten the heartache.

LYCIDAS: O Iollas, O cruel boy, won't you see me as more than a friend?
You will not be in demand forever;
Flowers lose their blossoms, thorns lose their roses;
lillies do not keep their color for long.
Grapevines do not hold their leaves forever,
poplar trees will lose their luscious shade:
the gift of beauty is brief, and is not found in old age.
Let each one sing of whomever they love;
songs can lighten the heartache.

MOPSUS: The doe in heat chases after the buck,
the pretty cow in heat pursues the bull;
even she-wolves feel the pull of desire [Venerem].
Even lionesses, flocks of birds and creepy-crawly scaly things,
even the trees sense love!
The mountains and forests resound with love.
You alone refuse love's call,
you have betrayed your wretched lover [amantem].
Let each one sing of whomever they love,
songs can lighten the heartache.

LYCIDAS: Time grows all things,
but time also takes them away:
Enjoyment exists for a short time.
It used to be springtime:
There used to be little calves sucking the milk from their mother.
Now they ram each other, fully grown, with their stubby horns
over the mating call of a young white heifer. 
You, cow like, with your flaring nostrils and proud neck
have already counted twenty harvests [i.e., twenty years old].
Let each one sing of whomever they love,
songs can lighten the heartache.

MOPSUS: Beautiful Meroe, please come back!
The heat of the day calls you into the shade.
The flocks are moseying into the groves;
no bird sings its lovely songs,
the serpent leaves no traces on the ground with its movement.
I alone am singing! The whole forest echoes my tunes,
not even the summertime crickets compete with my voice.
Let each one sing of whomever they love; songs can lighten the heartache.

LYCIDAS: You too, hard-hearted youth, don't ruin your perfect complexion
under this torrid sun: the cruel sun is used to burning such fair cheeks.
Come on, now, rest with me under the shade of these vines.
Over here there is a gentle fountain bubbling softly,
over here purple grapes hang down from the elm branches they cling to.
Let each one sing of whomever they love; songs can lighten the heartache.

MOPSUS: The man who endures haughty Meroe's abuse
can also endure Balkan snows,
can endure the heat of the African sun,
can drink sea water.
That man is not afraid of poisonous tree sap,
he can overpower the wild pastures of Gaul,
and can yoke savage African lions  together for his chariot.
Let each one sing of whomever they love; songs can lighten the heartache.

LYCIDAS: Whoever loves guys, let him be ready with a heart of steel.
Let him not be hasty, but let him learn to love with patience.
Let him heed the voice of wisdom in his youth,
let him learn to endure the hatred of others.
Let him do these things so one day he will find his joy,
if only some god will listen to his worried lover's prayers.
Let each one sing of whomever they love; songs can lighten the heartache.


NEMESIANUS
MAP:
Name:  Marcus Aurelius Olympius Nemesianus
Date:  fl. 283 CE
Works:  <poetry: only fragments remain>

REGION  3
Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans

BIO:
Timeline:
 Born in Carthage (modern Tunisia, northern Africa),  Nemesianus was a popular poet in the court of the Emperor Carus. Not much is known about the author, and only fragments of his poetry remains.
 AGE OF CONFLICT
Early Roman Lit: through 2nd c BCE: Republican Rome: through 1st c. BCE; Golden Age: 70 BCE to 18 CE; Silver Age: 18 CE to 150 CE; Age of Conflict: 150 CE - 410 CE; Byzantine and Late Latin: after 410 CE



Thursday, November 28, 2019

ISO Gay Friends; I'm Tired of the Competition. Propertius, Eleg. II.4.16-22

Sic est incautum, quidquid habetur amor.
Hostis si quis erit nobis, amet ille puellas:
gaudeat in puero, si quis amicus erit.
Tranquillo tuta descendis flumine cumba:
quid tibi tam parvi litoris unda nocet?
Alter saepe uno mutat praecordia verbo,
altera vix ipso sanguine mollis erit.

--Propertius, Elegies II.4.16-22

Whatever kind of relationship I'm in now, it's completely baffled me.
Whoever is into girls is my enemy now;
whoever is into guys, is now my friend.
Safely a gay man meanders down the tranquil streams of love,
what harm can such meager waves harm you?
A boyfriend can often change his mind with a single word,
but a girlfriend can scarcely change her feelings even when paid in your blood.


PROPERTIUS
MAP:
Name:  Sextus Propertius
Date:  50 – 15 BCE
Works:  Elegies

REGION  1
Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans

BIO:
Timeline:
 Propertius was an Italian-born Roman lyric poet whose love poetry provides insight into the mores of Augustan Rome. Like Catullus and Tibullus, Propertius used a pseudonym for the object of his attention; many of his love poems were addressed to “Cynthia.”
 GOLDEN AGE ROME
Early Roman Lit: through 2nd c BCE: Republican Rome: through 1st c. BCE; Golden Age: 70 BCE to 18 CE; Silver Age: 18 CE to 150 CE; Age of Conflict: 150 CE - 410 CE; Byzantine and Late Latin: after 410 CE




Sunday, November 24, 2019

What's in a Name? Pueri & Puellae

TRIGGER WARNING: human trafficking, slavery, rape

Just like English speakers use the term "boyfriend" and "girlfriend" to describe romantic relationships between adults, the Romans used the term pueri [boys] and puellae [girls] for their romantic partners. Although the literal meaning for these terms is "young children," most textual evidence supports that the Romans used these terms to refer to adult partners old enough to engage in sexual activity (e.g., cum puero ut bello bella puella cubet, Catullus 78.4; vir reliquis, uni sit puer mihi, Martial Epig. IV.42.14). The use of these terms, particularly puer, usually implies that the object of the lover's desire was still in their youthful bloom.

Despite the fact that both partners were usually of consenting age, there was nevertheless a massive power disparity between a puer and his amator. Most pueri described in the passages of Catullus, Martial and other lyric poets are either well-trained slaves or courtesans, and the relationship would always be in the absolute control of the puer's wealthy noble-class patron.

Regardless of their gender, the career of a Roman courtesan was short, and it was necessary to stockpile wealth for the few short years that they remained beautiful to support themselves once their looks faded. A perfect example of this can be found in the poetry of Martial, who states

Femina praeferri potuit tibi nulla, Lycori:
praeferri Glycerae femina nulla potest.
Haec erit hoc quod tu: tu non potes esse quod haec est.
Tempora quod faciunt! Hanc volo, te volui (Epig. VI.40).

Lycoris, no woman *could* compare to you,
but no woman *can* compare to Glycera.
She will be what you are now, but you cannot be what she is.
Oh, what time does! I *want* her, but I *wanted* you.

Roman lyric poetry is full of references to courtesans past their prime. No longer beautiful, a woman courtesan would become the stereotypical caricature dipsa ["thirsty," i.e., an alcoholic; cf. Ovid, Amores I.8]; a man courtesan would become an exoletus, ["past-his-prime;" cf. Martial, Epig. XII.91].  Life was brutal and harsh for a out-of-date courtesan; unable to use their social connections or their skillsets, they had to find employment wherever they could, or become pimps to continue the brutal cycle of human trafficking.

Furthermore, although these relationships between an amator and his puer may have been full of caring, intimate moments, the terrible fact remains that the patrician nobleman [vir optimus] was always free to engage in any sexual activity with any of his slaves--man, woman, or child--regardless of their consent.  It is this terrible practice of slavery, coupled with the massive disparity of rights for women and non-citizens, that made living in the Roman Empire so dangerous for anyone not an elite patrician.

Saturday, November 23, 2019

M/M: The Death of Antinous, Beloved of Hadrian, Cassius Dio Epit. LXIX.11

Postquam venit in Graeciam, inspexit mysteria: quumque postea per Iudaeam in Aegyptum venisset, parentavit Pompeio, de quo hunc versum profudisse fertur:

Pene caret tumulo cui tot modo templa fuerunt:

sepulchrumque eius collapsum restituit. In Aegypto quoque civitatem instauravit Antinoi nomine. Erat Antinous ortus Bithynio, civitare Bithyniae, quam civitatem etiam Claudiopolin appellamus. Hic Antinous quum in deliciis eius fuisset, in Aegypto mortuus est: sive quod in Nilum ceciderit, ut Hadrianus scribit; sive quod immolatus fuerit, uti veritas habet. Nam quum Hadrianus maxime curiosus esset, ut supra dixi, tum vero divinationibus utebatur, et magiciis artibus cuiusvis generis. Itaque Antinoum, vel ob amorem ipsius, vel quod voluntariam mortem subierat, (Nam Hadriano ad ea, quae parabat, opus erat anima voluntaria) tanto honore affecit; ut urbem in eo loco, in quo ille obiisset, colonis adductis conditam, ex eo nominari voluerit; statuasque ei, el potius simulacra, in omni fere orbe terrarum dedicaverit. Denique tum ipse quoddam se videre sidus aiebat, quod esset Antinoi; tum familiares idem fabulose fingentes libenter audiebat, quasi scilicet ex Antinoi anima vere sidus istud exortum esset, ac tun primum adparuisset. 

ἀφικόμενος δὲ ἐς τὴν Ἑλλάδα ἐπώπτευσε τὰ μυστήρια. διὰ δὲ τῆς Ἰουδαίας μετὰ ταῦτα ἐς Αἴγυπτον παριὼν καὶ ἐνήγισε τῷ Πομπηίῳ: πρὸς ὃν καὶ τουτὶ τὸ ἔπος ἀπορρῖψαι λέγεται τῷ ναοῖς βρίθοντι πόση σπάνις ἔπλετο τύμβου. καὶ τὸ μνῆμα αὐτοῦ διεφθαρμένον ἀνῳκοδόμησεν ἐν δὲ τῇ Αἰγύπτῳ καὶ τὴν Ἀντινόου ὠνομασμένην ἀνῳκοδόμησε πόλιν. ὁ γὰρ Ἀντίνοος ἦν μὲν ἐκ Βιθυνίου πόλεως Βιθυνίδος, ἣν καὶ Κλαυδιούπολιν καλοῦμεν, παιδικὰ δὲ 1 αὐτοῦ ἐγεγόνει, καὶ ἐν τῇ Αἰγύπτῳ ἐτελεύτησεν, εἴτ᾽ οὖν ἐς τὸν Νεῖλον ἐκπεσών, ὡς Ἁδριανὸς γράφει, εἴτε καὶ  ἱερουργηθείς, ὡς ἡ ἀλήθεια ἔχει. τά τε γὰρ ἄλλα περιεργότατος Ἁδριανός, ὥσπερ εἶπον, ἐγένετο, καὶ μαντείαις μαγγανείαις τε παντοδαπαῖς ἐχρῆτο. [p. 446] καὶ οὕτω γε τὸν Ἀντίνοον, ἤτοι διὰ τὸν ἔρωτα αὐτοῦ ἢ ὅτι ἐθελοντὴς ἐθανατώθη ῾ἑκουσίου γὰρ ψυχῆς πρὸς ἃ ἔπραττεν ἐδεῖτὀ, ἐτίμησεν ὡς 1 καὶ πόλιν ἐν τῷ χωρίῳ, ἐν ᾧ τοῦτ᾽ ἔπαθε, καὶ συνοικίσαι καὶ ὀνομάσαι ἀπ᾽ αὐτοῦ. καὶ ἐκείνου ἀνδριάντας ἐν πάσῃ ὡς εἰπεῖν τῇ οἰκουμένῃ, μᾶλλον δὲ ἀγάλματα, ἀνέθηκε. καὶ τέλος ἀστέρα τινὰ αὐτός τε ὁρᾶν ὡς καὶ τοῦ Ἀντινόου ὄντα ἔλεγε καὶ τῶν συνόντων οἱ 1 μυθολογούντων ἡδέως ἤκουεν ἔκ τε τῆς ψυχῆς τοῦ Ἀντινόου ὄντως τὸν ἀστέρα γεγενῆσθαι καὶ τότε πρῶτον ἀναπεφηνέναι.

--Cassius Dio, Epit. XLIX.11, translated from the Greek by Hermann Samuel Reimarus, 1752


Later, [the Roman Emperor Hadrian] went to Greece and participated in the Eleusinian Mysteries.
Afterwards, he traveled through Judaea and went to Egypt, where he honored Pompey the Great, and is said to have composed the following verse about it:

"The one who is honored with so many temples nearly lacks a tomb."

The Emperor then restored the great statesman's tomb which had fallen into disrepair.

In Egypt, the emperor founded a settlement named after Antinous. Antinous was born in Bithynium, a city in Bithynia that is also named Claudiopolis. Antinous was the Emperor's delight [in deliciis]; he died in Egypt.  He either "fell into the Nile," as the Emperor states, or he was ritually sacrificed, as is considered the truth. For as I have previously mentioned, Hadrian was by nature a curious man, and what is more, he was obsessed with divination and all sorts of magic arts. And so, either because of the emperor's love for him, or to honor the lad's sacrifice [for the ritual required a soul willing to die on the emperor's behalf], Hadrian honored Antinous by creating a city in the place where he died, and bringing settlers to live there. He also placed statues (or rather, cult statues) of the lad in nearly every corner of the Empire. Finally, he even claimed to see a comet which was Antinous reborn, and listened desperately to his cronies who made up stories claiming that the heavenly object was Antinous' soul rising into the heavens, and that the comet had never previously appeared.

CASSIUS DIO
MAP:
Name:  Lucius Cassius Dio
Date:  155 – 235 CE
Works:  Roman History*

REGION  5
Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans

BIO:
Timeline:
 Cassius Dio was a Roman statesman born in Nicaea, Bithynia who wrote an 80 volume work on Roman history that spanned from Aeneas’ flight from Troy to the rise of the emperor Severus Alexander. Although much of his history is lost, the fragments that we do have show rare insight into the Roman world.
 ROMAN GREECE
ARCHAIC: (through 6th c. BCE); GOLDEN AGE: (5th - 4th c. BCE); ALEXANDRIAN: (4th c. BCE - 1st c. BCE); ROMAN: (1st c. BCE - 4th c. CE); POST CONSTANTINOPLE: (4th c. CE - 8th c. CE); BYZANTINE: (post 8th c CE)


Sunday, November 17, 2019

W/W: The Women from Lesbos, Lucian, Dialog. Meret. 5.1

TRIGGER WARNING:  misgendered pronouns, invasive questions

Clonarium: nova quaedam de te audimus Leana, Lesbiam videlicet Megillam divitem illam, amare te, perinde ut virum, et coire vos, nescio quid mutuo vobis facientes. Quid istud? erubuisti? sed dic mihi, verane ista sunt?
Leaena: Vera Clonarium: pudet autem dicere. Alienum enim quiddam est.
Clonarium: At per Cererem, quid hoc negotiis aut quid sibi vult mulier? Quid autem etiam agitis, quando coitis? Vides, haudquaquam amas me, neque enim celares me talia.
Leaena: Amo equidem te, quantum ullam aliam. Mulier autem illa, virilis supra modum est.
Clonarium: Non intelligo, quidnam etiam dicas, nisi si tribas quaepiam est. Tales enim in Lesbo perhibent mulieres esse, quae a viris quidem pati illud nolint, cum mulieribus autem ipsae, perinde ac viri solent, congrediantur.
Leaena. Tale quippiam est.


Κλωνάριον

καινὰ περὶ σοῦ ἀκούομεν, ὦ Λέαινα, τὴν Λεσβίαν Μέγιλλαν τὴν πλουσίαν ἐρᾶν σου ὥσπερ ἄνδρα καὶ συνεῖναι ὑμᾶς οὐκ οἶδ᾽ ὅ τι ποιούσας μετ᾽ ἀλλήλων. τί τοῦτο; ἠρυθρίασας; ἀλλ᾽ εἰπὲ εἰ ἀληθῆ ταῦτά ἐστιν.

Λέαινα

ἀληθῆ, ὦ Κλωνάριον: αἰσχύνομαι δέ, ἀλλόκοτον γάρ τί ἐστι.

Κλωνάριον

πρὸς τῆς κουροτρόφου τί τὸ πρᾶγμα, ἢ τί βούλεται ἡ γυνή; τί δὲ καὶ πράττετε, ὅταν συνῆτε; ὁρᾷς; οὐ φιλεῖς με: οὐ γὰρ ἂν ἀπεκρύπτου τὰ τοιαῦτα.

Λέαινα

φιλῶ μέν σε, εἰ καί τινα ἄλλην. ἡ γυνὴ δὲ δεινῶς ἀνδρική ἐστιν.

Κλωνάριον

οὐ μανθάνω ὅ τι καὶ λέγεις, εἰ μή τις ἑταιρίστρια τυγχάνει οὖσα: τοιαύτας γάρ ἐν Λέσβῳ λέγουσι γυναῖκας ἀρρενωπούς, ὑπ᾽ ἀνδρῶν μὲν οὐκ ἐθελούσας αὐτὸ πάσχειν, γυναιξὶ δὲ αὐτὰς πλησιαζούσας ὥσπερ ἄνδρας. 

Λέαινα
τοιοῦτόν τι.

--Lucian, Dialogi Meretricum 5.2-3, Translated from the Greek by Michaelis Vascosanus


Clonarium and Leaena Discuss Leaena's New Lover:

Clonarium: Leaena, what’s this I hear about you and this rich Lesbian girl named Megilla? Is it true that she loves you like a man, that you are dating each other, and doing God knows what else? What is going on? What, are you blushing? Tell me, is it true or what?


Leaena: It’s true, Clonarium, but it’s odd to talk about it. It’s a very strange situation.


Clonarium:  By God, what’s going on? What does the woman want? What are you two doing together, when you go out? If you loved me, you wouldn’t hide such things from me.


Leaena: I love you more than any other woman. But I love her, too, but as a man.


Clonarium: I don’t understand whatever it is that you’re saying. Is she a lesbian? Is that it? They say that there are such women in Lesbos, who don’t want to be with men, but instead want to be with women, and date women like men.


Leaena: Exactly.



LUCIAN
MAP:
Name:  Lucianus Samosatensis
Date:  125 – 180 CE
Works: Dialogue of the Courtesans*
               True History, etc.
REGION  4
Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans

BIO:
Timeline:
 Lucian was a Turkish-born Roman satirist who wrote in ancient Greek. His works are a mixture of sarcasm, wit, and biting social criticism. He is without a doubt one of the most popular authors of the later Roman empire.
 ROMAN GREECE
ARCHAIC: (through 6th c. BCE); GOLDEN AGE: (5th - 4th c. BCE); ALEXANDRIAN: (4th c. BCE - 1st c. BCE); ROMAN: (1st c. BCE - 4th c. CE); POST CONSTANTINOPLE: (4th c. CE - 8th c. CE); BYZANTINE: (post 8th c CE)


Megillus' Story: Lucian, Dial. Meretric. 5.2-3

TRIGGER WARNING: deliberate misuse of gendered pronouns, inappropriate and invasive questions

Megilla cum iam incaluisset, comam, ut illam quidem fictriciam habebat, a capite reiecit, ipsa autem iacebat omnino similis, atque aequiparanda gladiatorialicui vehementer virili, atque robusto, ad vivum usque cute detonsa. Ac ego quidem, ubi aspexi, perterrita sum. Illa vero, Leaena inquit, ecquidem adolescentem, unquam vidisti ita pulchrum? At non video, inquam ego, ullum hic adolescentem, Megilla. Tum illa, ne me, inquit, effemines, aut mulierem facias: Megillus enim vocor ego, et iam olim Demonassam hanc uxorem duxi, estque ea uxor mea. Risi equidem ad haec, Clonarium, atque proinde Megilla, latuisti, inquam, tu nos, vir existens, quemadmodum Achillem aiunt, inter virgines absconditum latuisse, habesque virile illud?...non habeo, sed neque opus eo admodum habeo. Peculiari autem modo, suavius aliquanto coversari me videbis. At num Hermophroditus es, inquam ego, quales multi perhibentur esse, utrumqe membrum habentes (Adhuc enim Cloniarum, ipsam rem ignorabam) Neque hoc, inquit illa, sed per omnia vir sum. Tum ego, audivi, inquam, ex Boeotia tibicina quadam, Ismenodora nomina, cum illa, quae Ephestria, apud ipsos dicuntur, enarraret, fuisse Thebis, quendam ex muliere virum factum, qui idem et vates optimus fuerit. Num igitur et tibi tale aliquid accidit. haudquaquam Leaena inquit sed nata equidum sum similis vobis aliis. Sententia autem et libido ceteraque omnia virilia mihi sunt. 

χρόνῳ δὲ ἡ Μέγιλλα ὑπόθερμος ἤδη οὖσα τὴν μὲν πηνήκην ἀφείλετο τῆς κεφαλῆς, ἐπέκειτο δὲ πάνυ ὁμοία καὶ προσφυής, καὶ ἐν χρῷ ὤφθη αὐτὴ καθάπερ οἱ σφόδρα ἀνδρώδεις τῶν ἀθλητῶν ἀποκεκαρμένη: κἀγὼ ἐταράχθην ἰδοῦσα. ἡ δέ, Ὦ Λέαινα, φησίν, ἑώρακας ἤδη οὕτω καλὸν νεανίσκον; ἀλλ᾽ οὐχ ὁρῶ γε, ἔφην ἐγώ, νεανίσκον ἐνταῦθα, ὦ Μέγιλλα. μή με καταθήλυνε, ἔφη, Μέγιλλος γὰρ ἐγὼ λέγομαι καὶ γεγάμηκα πρόπαλαι ταύτην τὴν Δημώνασσαν, καὶ ἔστιν ἐμὴ γυνή. ἐγέλασα, ὦ Κλωνάριον, ἐπὶ τούτῳ καὶ ἔφην, Οὐκοῦν σύ, ὦ Μέγιλλε, ἀνήρ τις ὢν ἐλελήθεις ἡμᾶς, καθάπερ τὸν Ἀχιλλέα φασὶν ἐν ταῖς παρθένοις κρυπτόμενον ταῖς ἁλουργίσι; καὶ ὅπερ οἱ ἄνδρες; ἐκεῖνο μέν ἔφη, ὦ Λέαινα, οὐκ ἔχω: δέομαι δὲ οὐδὲ πάνυ αὐτοῦ: ἴδιον δέ τινα τρόπον ἡδίω παρὰ πολὺ ὁμιλοῦντα ὄψει με. ἀλλὰ μὴ Ἑρμαφρόδιτος εἶ, ἔφην, οἷοι πολλοὶ εἶναι λέγονται ἀμφότερα ἔχοντες; ἔτι γὰρ ἠγνόουν, ὦ Κλωνάριον, τὸ πρᾶγμα. οὔ, φησίν, ἀλλὰ τὸ πὰν ἀνήρ εἰμι. ἤκουσα, ἔφην ἐγώ, τῆς Βοιωτίας αὐλητρίδος Ἰσμηνοδώρας διηγουμένης τὰ ἐφέστια παρ᾽ αὐτοῖς, ὡς γένοιτό τις ἐν Θήβαις ἐκ γυναικὸς ἀνήρ, ὁ δ᾽ αὐτὸς καὶ μάντις ἄριστος, οἶμαι, Τειρεσίας τοὔνομα. μὴ οὖν καὶ σὺ τοιοῦτόν τι πέπονθας; οὔκουν, ὦ Λέαινα, ἔφη, ἀλλὰ ἐγεννήθην μὲν ὁμοία ταῖς ἄλλαις ὑμῖν, ἡ γνώμη δὲ καὶ ἡ ἐπιθυμία καὶ τἆλλα πάντα ἀνδρός ἐστί μοι.

--Lucian, Dialogi Meretricum 5.2-3, Translated from the Greek by Michaelis Vascosanus

Leaena Tells Her Friend Clonarium About Her Date with Megillus:

When Megilla grew warm, she took off the very realistic wig she was wearing, revealing a nearly shaved head, with hair as short as an athlete's.  
When I saw this, I was terrified.


But then she said, “Have you ever seen a more beautiful man?”


And I said, “I don’t see any man here, Megilla.”


And she said, “Don’t think of me as a woman, for I am called Megillus, and I have married this woman Demonassa, and she is my wife.”


I laughed at this, and then I said, “Megilla, did pull off what Achilles did, and being a man, hide among women? Do you have man parts?”


“I do not, but I also don’t need them. You will see that I have my own way of loving.”


“So are you a hermaphrodite, then, as many people claim to be, and have both man parts and lady parts?” (I honestly don’t know what’s going on)


“No,” she said, “I am wholly a man.”


Then I said, “I’ve heard of a certain entertainer from Boeotia, named Ismanodora, who tells tales about a certain man from Thebes, who went from being a woman into being a man, who was an outstanding prophet [Tiresias]. Did the same thing happen to you? Is that what happened?”


“No, Leaena,” she said, “I was born [nata] similar to you women. But my mind [sententia] and orientation [libido] and everything else about me is male.”

LUCIAN
MAP:
Name:  Lucianus Samosatensis
Date:  125 – 180 CE
Works: Dialogue of the Courtesans*
               True History, etc.
REGION  4
Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans

BIO:
Timeline:
 Lucian was a Turkish-born Roman satirist who wrote in ancient Greek. His works are a mixture of sarcasm, wit, and biting social criticism. He is without a doubt one of the most popular authors of the later Roman empire.
 ROMAN GREECE
ARCHAIC: (through 6th c. BCE); GOLDEN AGE: (5th - 4th c. BCE); ALEXANDRIAN: (4th c. BCE - 1st c. BCE); ROMAN: (1st c. BCE - 4th c. CE); POST CONSTANTINOPLE: (4th c. CE - 8th c. CE); BYZANTINE: (post 8th c CE)