Sunday, October 20, 2019

W/W: Philaenis' [Girl]friend: Martial, Epig. VII.70

 According to Greek lore, Philaenis was a woman author who wrote a treatise on erotic arts. Because of this, the name Philaenis was used for a stock character of a woman who exceeded Greco-Roman gender roles. Whether she showed excessive lust, same-sex desire, or had children out of wedlock, the name Philaenis was used as an umbrella-term to cover these "unladylike" behaviors.



Ipsarum tribadum tribas, Philaeni, 

recte, quam [viseris], vocas "amicam."

--Martial, Epig. VII.70

Philaenis, everyone's favorite lesbian,
you call the girls you date your [girl]friend--and rightly so!

[Martial is using a double entendre here, as amica can mean female friend or "friend with benefits."]

Disclaimer: this text has been modified to fit the scope of this blog. The main verb of the relative clause has been changed into a less severe alternative. Considering the scarcity of women's perspectives in Latin literature, I felt it was important to include this passage despite the language it uses.

MARTIAL
MAP:
Name: Marcus Valerius Martialis
Date:  40 CE – 104 CE
Works:  Epigrammaton Libri XV*
               De Spectaculis

REGION  2 (Hispania)
Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans

BIO:
Timeline:
Originally from Bilbilis, Hispania, the poet Martial moved to Rome in the 60s CE to advance his career. His two extant works include de Spectaculis, a collection of poems written to commemorate the opening of the Colosseum, and a fifteen volume collection of epigrams. These epigrams provide valuable insight into the mores and private lives of men and women from all of the city’s social classes.     
 SILVER AGE ROME
Early Roman Lit: through 2nd c BCE: Republican Rome: through 1st c. BCE; Golden Age: 70 BCE to 18 CE; Silver Age: 18 CE to 150 CE; Age of Conflict: 150 CE - 410 CE; Byzantine and Late Latin: after 410 CE



A Trans Woman: Leucippus, Antoninus Liberalis, Metam. XVII

Filia Eurytii F. Spartonis Galatea, Phaesti Critae nupsit Lampro Pandionis F. viro natalibus non obscuris, sed inopi. Is cum uxor gravida esset, voto masculam sibi prolem expetens, edixit mulieri, si filiam peperisset, uti ne eam tolleret: simul ad oves pascendas digressus: Galatea filiam partu edidit: &  miserta infantis, solitudinemque familiae reputans, insomniis adstipulantibus, et ariolis pro filio eam educatre iubentibus, Lamprum decepit, filium se enixam professa: puellamque nomine Leucippi affectam, tanquam filius si esset, enutriit. Cum adolevisset puella, & ineffabili esset pulchritudine, metuens sibi a marito Galatea, cum res diutius tegi non posset, in fanum Latonae confugit: multisque a Dea precibus contendit, si filia in marem mutari posset: sicut Caenis Atracis filia, Neptuni voluntate in Caeneum Lapitham abiit: & Tiresias ob interfectos in trivio coeuntes angues, de viro mulier fuit factus: rursusque virilem sexum adeptus est, quia draconem saepenumero Panastem autem & Hypermestram venditam pro muliere invenisse pretium: cum autem in virum esset mutata, alimenta Aethoni patri attulisse. Cretensem quoque Siproetam mutatum, cum inter venandum lavantem vidisset Minervam. Latona continenter lamentantem & deprecantem miserata est Galateam, puellamque in puerum mutavit.
--Antoninus Liberalis, Metamorphoses XVII

Galatea, the Spartan daughter of Eurytius, married Lamprus, the son of Cretan King Pandion. Lamprus was from a famous, but poor family.
When Galatea became pregnant, Lamprus wanted a boy, and ordered her to expose the infant if she gave birth to a girl.
While Lamprus was out tending his flocks, Galatea gave birth to the girl. Swollen with milk and sleep deprived, Galatea thought about how empty their home was when Lamprus was away, and pitied the infant. She deceived Lamprus and said she gave birth to a boy.  She raised the girl with the name Leucippus, as if the girl were a son.
When the girl went through puberty and became astoundingly beautiful, Galatea could no longer hide what she had done and fled to the temple of Latona [mother of Diana and Apollo].
She laid out her case to the goddess with ceaseless prayers, praying that her daughter be transformed into a man and using the following precedents:

  • Caenis, the daughter of Atrax, was changed into a man by the will of Neptune. 
  • Tiresias, too, went from man to woman by slaying a pair of snakes mating by the side of the road; he then returned to being a man by slaying another snake. 
  • Hypermestra sold herself as a woman to earn money for her father, and changed back into a man to bring the proceeds back to their father Aethon. 
  • Siproetis, a Cretan lad, accidentally saw Minerva bathing while he was hunting and was transformed into a woman.
Latona pitied the woman's prayers and changed her daughter into a son.

ANTONINUS LIBERALIS
MAP:
Name: Antoninus Liberalis  
Date:  2nd – 3rd c. CE
Works:  Metamorphoses*

REGION  UNKNOWN
Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans

BIO:
Timeline:
 Little is known about the life of the Greek author Antoninus Liberalis. His work, Metamorphoses, is similar to the works of Hyginus in that they provide brief summaries of Greek and Roman myths.
 ROMAN GREECE
ARCHAIC: (through 6th c. BCE); GOLDEN AGE: (5th - 4th c. BCE); HELLENISTIC: (4th c. BCE - 1st c. BCE); ROMAN: (1st c. BCE - 4th c. CE); POST CONSTANTINOPLE: (4th c. CE - 8th c. CE); BYZANTINE: (post 8th c CE)



Thursday, October 17, 2019

M/M: The Emperor's Beloved: Antinous, SHA Vit. Hadr. XIV.5-7

Antinoum suum, dum per Nilum navigat, perdidit, quem muliebriter flevit. de quo varia fama est, aliis eum devotum pro Hadriano adserentibus, aliis quod et forma eius ostetat et nimia voluptas Hadriani. et Graeci quidem volente Hadriano eum consecraverunt, oracula per eum dari adserentes, quae Hadrianus ipse composuisse iactatur.

--SHA Vita Hadriani XIV.5-7


While traveling down the Nile, [The Emperor Hadrian] lost his lover Antinous and mourned him excessively. There are several rumors about how it happened. Some say that Antinous was ritually sacrificed to preserve the Emperor’s life, while others consider the youth’s beauty and the Emperor’s passion for him and think it was the result of a lover’s quarrel. The Greeks even deified the youth at the Emperor’s behest, and claim that his spirit gave oracles, but many dismiss these as being written not by Antinous but the Emperor himself. 

<Anonymous>

MAP:

Name:  ???

Date:  4th c. CE

Works:  Historia Augusta

 

REGION  UNKNOWN

Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans


BIO:

Timeline:

 Little is known about the author(s) of the Historia Augusta; even internal evidence within the text is either falsified, skewed or utterly fictitious. Although attributed to six different authors, the text was likely written by a single author living during the 4th century CE. It is a series of imperial biographies modeled after the works of Suetonius; these biographies cover the reigns of the emperors Hadrian through Carus.

 AGE OF CONFLICT

 

Early Roman Lit: through 2nd c BCE: Republican Rome: through 1st c. BCE; Golden Age: 70 BCE to 18 CE; Silver Age: 18 CE to 150 CE; Age of Conflict: 150 CE - 410 CE; Byzantine and Late Latin: after 410 CE




Tuesday, October 15, 2019

M/M: Money Can't Buy You Love: Martial Epig. XII.75

Festinat Polytimus ad puellas,
Invitus puerum fatetur Hypnus,...
Mollis Dindymus est, sed esse non vult;
Amphion potuit puella nasci.
Horum delicias superbiamque 
et fastus querulos, Avite, malo
quam dotis mihi quinquies ducena.

--Martial, Epig. XII.75

Polytimus chases after girls,
Hypnus only hesitantly admits he's into guys
Dindymus is gay, but doesn't want to be,
Amphion could have been born a girl.
But, Avitus, I'd rather date one of these guys,
and deal with all their drama, all their over-the-top complaints,
than marry a millionaire's snobby daughter.

MARTIAL
MAP:
Name: Marcus Valerius Martialis
Date:  40 CE – 104 CE
Works:  Epigrammaton Libri XV*
               De Spectaculis

REGION  2 (Hispania)
Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans

BIO:
Timeline:
Originally from Bilbilis, Hispania, the poet Martial moved to Rome in the 60s CE to advance his career. His two extant works include de Spectaculis, a collection of poems written to commemorate the opening of the Colosseum, and a fifteen volume collection of epigrams. These epigrams provide valuable insight into the mores and private lives of men and women from all of the city’s social classes.     
 SILVER AGE ROME
Early Roman Lit: through 2nd c BCE: Republican Rome: through 1st c. BCE; Golden Age: 70 BCE to 18 CE; Silver Age: 18 CE to 150 CE; Age of Conflict: 150 CE - 410 CE; Byzantine: after 410 CE



M/M: Unrequited: Catullus 99

Surripui tibi, dum ludis, mellite Iuventi,
suaviolum dulci dulcius ambrosia.
Verum id non impune tuli: namque amplius horam
suffixum in summa me memini esse cruce,
dum tibi me purgo, nec possum fletibus ullis
tantillum vestrae demere saevitiae.
Nam simul id factum est, multis diluta labella
guttis abstersisti omnibus articulis,
ne quicquam nostro contractum ex ore maneret,
tamquam commictae spurca saliva lupae.
Praeterea infesto miserum me tradere amori
non cessati omnique excruciare modo,
ut mi ex ambrosia mutatum iam foret illud
suaviolum tristi tristius elleboro.
Quam quoniam poenam misero proponis amori,
numquam iam posthac basia surripiam.

--Catullus 99

While you were distracted, sweet Iuventius,
I stole a kiss from you; it was sweeter than the sweetest honey.
But I didn't get away with it: for the next hour
I felt utterly tortured and alone.
For although I tried to apologize, my tears could not
temper an ounce of your savage response.
As soon as I did it, you wiped the kiss off your lips,
rubbing it off with each and every finger,
so not a trace of my lips remained on yours,
as if I were contaminated and dirty.
You didn't hesitate to hurt me, as I suffered from a love unreturned.
You tortured me in every way,
and now you turned a kiss, once as sweet to me as honey
into something sad, the bitterest poison.
So now I've learned my lesson, I've paid my penalty,
and never again shall I steal any more kisses.


CATULLUS
MAP:
Name:  Gaius Valerius Catullus
Date:  84 – 54 BCE
Works:  Poems

REGION  1
Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans

BIO:
Timeline:
Catullus was a Roman statesman born in Verona  (Cisalpine Gaul, located in northern Italy) who lived during the tumultuous last days of the Roman Republic.  His poetry offers rare insight into the mores of the time period. Like Propertius and Tibullus, Catullus used a pseudonym for the objects of his attention; many of his love poems were addressed to either “Lesbia” or “Juventius.” 
 GOLDEN AGE
Early Roman Lit: through 2nd c BCE: Republican Rome: through 1st c. BCE; Golden Age: 70 BCE to 18 CE; Silver Age: 18 CE to 150 CE; Age of Conflict: 150 CE - 410 CE; Byzantine and Late Latin: after 410 CE



Monday, October 14, 2019

M/M: A Groupie: Martial Epig. VIII.63

Thestylon Aulus amat sed nec minus ardet Alexin,
forsitan et nostrum nunc Hyacinthon amat.
I nunc et dubita vates an diligat ipsos,
delicias vatum cum meus Aulus amet.

--Martial VIII.63

Aulus loves Thestylus, but he burns for Alexis just as much,
perhaps he even loves my Hyacinthus, too;
Perhaps his true crush is the poets themselves
considering our Aulus loves all their boyfriends?

MARTIAL
MAP:
Name: Marcus Valerius Martialis
Date:  40 CE – 104 CE
Works:  Epigrammaton Libri XV*
               De Spectaculis

REGION  2 (Hispania)
Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans

BIO:
Timeline:
Originally from Bilbilis, Hispania, the poet Martial moved to Rome in the 60s CE to advance his career. His two extant works include de Spectaculis, a collection of poems written to commemorate the opening of the Colosseum, and a fifteen volume collection of epigrams. These epigrams provide valuable insight into the mores and private lives of men and women from all of the city’s social classes.     
 SILVER AGE ROME
Early Roman Lit: through 2nd c BCE: Republican Rome: through 1st c. BCE; Golden Age: 70 BCE to 18 CE; Silver Age: 18 CE to 150 CE; Age of Conflict: 150 CE - 410 CE; Byzantine and Late Latin: after 410 CE



Sunday, October 13, 2019

Just Say No: Euripides' Hippolytus, 58-113

HIP: Hac me sequimini,
Cantu Deam modulemur:
Natam Iove Artemin
Dulci canentes voce:
Res nostrae huic sunt curae.
[Min]: Veneranda, o veneranda,
Casti plena pudoris,
Iovis aetherii certum germen,
Salve o virgineum decus,
Salve Latonae et Iovis
Inclyta filia:
Forma nympha decora
Omneis superas virgines,
Quotquot caeli spatiosa patris
degunt aula,
per Iovis aurea templa.
HIP. Salve o formosissima,
Cunctarum quae caelo degunt
Artemi formosissima virginum,
***
Tibi hanc coronam Diva contextam fero
e florido intactoque prato, numquam ubi
immissa pastor pecora pavit, falce nec
fuere secta gramina: ast apes vagae,
per verna solum tempora, herbas fertileis
alis pererrant mollibus; fluviatili
rore pudor irrigat. Facessat o procul
ex disciplina hausta indoles, natura quos
ad recta ducit, usque quos stipat pudor
nativus; his fas hinc sit herbas carpere:
praeclusus at sit aditus omnis improbis:
tuque Domina, mihi cara, amica a dextera
munus profectum vertici impone aureo.
 Soli hic mihi mortalium datus est honor,
ut verser una, unaque tecum colloquar,
vocem audiam, faciem tamen non conspicer:
vitae meae tu, quaeso, curriculum rege,
quemque institi liceat manere tramite.
ANC: O rex, Deos dominos vocare fas iubet:
tu consiline vis mei esse particeps?
HIP: Quidni? Recusans haud sapere possim argui.
ANC: At lex hominibus quae statuta sit es memor?
HIP: Ignoro. Sed quid est, quod ex me scire vis?
ANC: Superbiam exodisse, et aeque qui omnibus non sunt amici.
HIP: Sed quis aequo plus gravis
non omnium in sese illico vertat odia?
ANC: In comitate aliquodne consistit decus?
HIP: Magnum quidem, exiguaque cum molestia
ingens lucrum.
ANC: Affectos Deosne existimas
modo esse eodem?
HIP: Si quidem Deorum usque sumus usi legibus.
ANC: Cur fatuosae verba non facis Deae?
HIP: Cui? Os tuum ne erret, etiam atque etiam vide.
ANC: Ei, ante quae fores tuas stat, Cypridi.
HIP: Illam saluto castus eminus Deam.
ANC: Veneranda ea est atque inter homines nobilis.
HIP: Alii aliis Dii Hominesque curam impartiunt.
ANC: Beatus esse mente sana praeditus.
HIP: Nullus mihi placet Deum immortalium,
cuius sacra exercentur atris noctibus.
ANC: Dii sunt colendi consuetis ritibus.
HIP: Ite famuli iam intro; ut paratae sint dapes,
curate. Iucundae refertae dulcibus
mensae cibis sunt, assiduus ubi famem
venatus obsonavit. Equi etiam mei
sunt reficiendi, quo iugatos curribus
dape saturatus commodius exerceam.
Longum at tuam iubeo valere Cypridem.


Ἱππόλυτος
ἕπεσθ᾽ ᾁδοντες ἕπεσθε
τὰν Διὸς οὐρανίαν
Ἄρτεμιν, ᾇ μελόμεσθα.
Ἱππόλυτος καὶ θεράποντες
πότνια πότνια σεμνοτάτα,
Ζηνὸς γένεθλον,
χαῖρε, χαῖρέ μοι, ὦ κόρα
Λατοῦς Ἄρτεμι καὶ Διός,
καλλίστα πολὺ παρθένων,
ἃ μέγαν κατ᾽ οὐρανὸν
ναίεις εὐπατέρειαν αὐ-
λάν, Ζηνὸς πολύχρυσον οἶκον.
χαῖρέ μοι, ὦ καλά, καλ-
λίστα τῶν κατ᾽ Ὄλυμπον
[παρθένων, Ἄρτεμι].
Ἱππόλυτος
σοὶ τόνδε πλεκτὸν στέφανον ἐξ ἀκηράτου
λειμῶνος, ὦ δέσποινα, κοσμήσας φέρω,
ἔνθ᾽ οὔτε ποιμὴν ἀξιοῖ φέρβειν βοτὰ
οὔτ᾽ ἦλθέ πω σίδηρος, ἀλλ᾽ ἀκήρατον
μέλισσα λειμῶν᾽ ἠρινὴ διέρχεται,
Αἰδὼς δὲ ποταμίαισι κηπεύει δρόσοις,
ὅσοις διδακτὸν μηδὲν ἀλλ᾽ ἐν τῇ φύσει
τὸ σωφρονεῖν εἴληχεν ἐς τὰ πάντ᾽ ἀεί,
τούτοις δρέπεσθαι, τοῖς κακοῖσι δ᾽ οὐ θέμις.
ἀλλ᾽, ὦ φίλη δέσποινα, χρυσέας κόμης
ἀνάδημα δέξαι χειρὸς εὐσεβοῦς ἄπο.
μόνῳ γάρ ἐστι τοῦτ᾽ ἐμοὶ γέρας βροτῶν:
σοὶ καὶ ξύνειμι καὶ λόγοις ἀμείβομαι,
κλύων μὲν αὐδῆς, ὄμμα δ᾽ οὐχ ὁρῶν τὸ σόν.
τέλος δὲ κάμψαιμ᾽ ὥσπερ ἠρξάμην βίου.
Θεράπωνἄναξ — θεοὺς γὰρ δεσπότας καλεῖν χρεών —
ἆρ᾽ ἄν τί μου δέξαιο βουλεύσαντος εὖ;
Ἱππόλυτοςκαὶ κάρτα γ᾽: ἦ γὰρ οὐ σοφοὶ φαινοίμεθ᾽ ἄν.
Θεράπωνοἶσθ᾽ οὖν βροτοῖσιν ὃς καθέστηκεν νόμος;
Ἱππόλυτοςοὐκ οἶδα: τοῦ δὲ καί μ᾽ ἀνιστορεῖς πέρι;
Θεράπωνμισεῖν τὸ σεμνὸν καὶ τὸ μὴ πᾶσιν φίλον.
Ἱππόλυτοςὀρθῶς γε: τίς δ᾽ οὐ σεμνὸς ἀχθεινὸς βροτῶν;
Θεράπωνἐν δ᾽ εὐπροσηγόροισίν ἐστί τις χάρις;
Ἱππόλυτοςπλείστη γε, καὶ κέρδος γε σὺν μόχθῳ βραχεῖ.
Θεράπωνἦ κἀν θεοῖσι ταὐτὸν ἐλπίζεις τόδε;
Ἱππόλυτοςεἴπερ γε θνητοὶ θεῶν νόμοισι χρώμεθα.
Θεράπωνπῶς οὖν σὺ σεμνὴν δαίμον᾽ οὐ προσεννέπεις;
Ἱππόλυτοςτίν᾽; εὐλαβοῦ δὲ μή τί σου σφαλῇ στόμα.
Θεράπωντήνδ᾽, ἣ πύλαισι σαῖς ἐφέστηκεν πέλας.
Ἱππόλυτοςπρόσωθεν αὐτὴν ἁγνὸς ὢν ἀσπάζομαι.
Θεράπωνσεμνή γε μέντοι κἀπίσημος ἐν βροτοῖς.
Ἱππόλυτοςοὐδείς μ᾽ ἀρέσκει νυκτὶ θαυμαστὸς θεῶν.
Θεράπωντιμαῖσιν, ὦ παῖ, δαιμόνων χρῆσθαι χρεών.
Ἱππόλυτοςἄλλοισιν ἄλλος θεῶν τε κἀνθρώπων μέλει.
Θεράπωνεὐδαιμονοίης νοῦν ἔχων ὅσον σε δεῖ.
Ἱππόλυτοςχωρεῖτ᾽, ὀπαδοί, καὶ παρελθόντες δόμους
σίτων μέλεσθε: τερπνὸν ἐκ κυναγίας
τράπεζα πλήρης: καὶ καταψήχειν χρεὼν
ἵππους, ὅπως ἂν ἅρμασιν ζεύξας ὕπο
βορᾶς κορεσθεὶς γυμνάσω τὰ πρόσφορα.
τὴν σὴν δὲ Κύπριν πόλλ᾽ ἐγὼ χαίρειν λέγω.

--Euripides, Hippolytus 58 - 113. Trans. Georgio Ratallero, 1822

HIPPOLYTUS: Join me, let us praise the goddess with hymns, singing sweetly of Jupiter's daughter Artemis, who looks after us.
ATTENDANTS: Holy one, Holy one,
chaste and pure one,
the true offspring of heavenly Jupiter,
Greetings, o Model of Womanhood.
Greetings, renowned daughter of
Latona & Jupiter.
You surpass all the ladies
with your youthful grace,
surpassing even the ageless nymphs
that dwell in the lofty halls
of their heavenly Father's palace.
HIPPOLYTUS: Greetings, gorgeous one,
most beautiful of all maidens who dwell in heaven,
Artemis, the most beautiful maiden of all!
I bring you this garland
woven with wildflowers
gathered in a faraway field,
where no shepherd e'er steered his grazing flocks,
where no farmer e'er plowed or reaped;
where only meandering bees fluttered on soft wings
o'er the fertile brush in springtime's bloom,
which Chastity tends with waters collected from river-born dew.
The only ones permitted to pluck these blooms
are those who swarm 'round Abstinence,
whose inborn nature guides them
in a complete and perfect life of chastity.
Let this place be closed off from raunchy ones.
And you, Lady, dear to me,
my companion, take this offering from my right hand
and place it upon your golden brow.
Of all mortals, you alone honor me
that I may spend time together with you,
that I speak together with you,
that I hear your voice,
though I see not your face.
I beg you, guide the course of my life,
let me remain on my accustomed path.
SERVANT:  O King, the Natural Order of the Universe bids us to call upon the gods who rule us. Will you join me in doing this?
HIPPOLYTUS: Why not? It's hardly wise to argue with your words.
SERVANT: Do you not recall the commandments given to mankind?
HIPPOLYTUS: I'm not sure. But what is it? What do you want to speak with me about?
SERVANT: The law about hating the haughty, and those who aren't friendly to all.
HIPPOLYTUS: Is there anything worse than that? Who deserves everyone's hatred more than that one?
SERVANT: Isn't it proper to no exclude people?
HIPPOLYTUS: Of course! Interacting with people gives such a great reward from such a trivial inconvenience.
SERVANT: Shouldn't we treat the gods the same way?
HIPPOLYTUS: Well, yes, we should follow the same rule.
SERVANT: Why then do you not hail the Goddess of Pleasantries?
HIPPOLYTUS: Who? Watch your tongue, lest you regret your words.
SERVANT: Her, the one who stands beside you. Cyprian Venus. [Points to statue]
HIPPOLYTUS: [Addresses statue] Being chaste, I greet you from afar, Goddess.
SERVANT: She is revered and valued among mankind.
HIPPOLYTUS: To each their own, then.
SERVANT: A blessed man is gifted with a healthier perspective.
HIPPOLYTUS: I don't like any immortal god whose rites occur hidden under the veil of dark night.
SERVANT: But the gods must be worshipped in the way they choose.
HIPPOLYTUS: (extricating himself from the conversation) Go then, attendants, I'm going inside. Get dinner ready. Set tables for our delicious meal, let the spoil of my hunt quiet our hungry bellies. See my horses to their stables, so they'll be ready when I yoke them to my chariot later. [addresses servant] I bid you worship your Goddess far from me.

EURIPIDES
MAP:
Name:  Euripides
Date:  480 – 406 BCE
Works:  Hippolytus*
               Ion
               Medea
               Trojan Women, etc.

REGION  5
Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans

BIO:
Timeline:
 Euripides is considered one of the best tragedians of the ancient Mediterranean world. Although he wrote nearly a hundred Greek tragedies, only a handful have survived to the present day.
 GOLDEN AGE GREEK
ARCHAIC: (through 6th c. BCE); GOLDEN AGE: (5th - 4th c. BCE); ALEXANDRIAN: (4th c. BCE - 1st c. BCE); ROMAN: (1st c. BCE - 4th c. CE); POST CONSTANTINOPLE: (4th c. CE - 8th c. CE); BYZANTINE: (post 8th c CE)