Wednesday, April 29, 2020

Just Say No: The Heavenly Example of Artemis, Apollodorus Lib.I.4

Trigger Warning: Rape


Ceterum de Coei filiabus Asteria fugiens Iovis complexum in coturnicem mutata seipsam demisit in mare, quae ab ea urbs Asteria appellata fuit, quae postea Delos nomen accepit. Siquidem Latonam ab Iove compressam per universum terrarum orbem Juno insectata est, donec Delum pervenit, atque ibi Dianam prius peperit: qua obstetrice adiuta mater Apollinem deinceps edidit. Enimvero Diana venationis studio delectata, virgo permansit: Apollo autem divinandi facultatem edoctus a Pane Iovis & Contumeliae filio, Delphos, quo tempore Themis illic oracula dabat, se contulit.

τῶν δὲ Κοίου θυγατέρων Ἀστερία μὲν ὁμοιωθεῖσα ὄρτυγι ἑαυτὴν εἰς θάλασσαν ἔρριψε, φεύγουσα τὴν πρὸς Δία συνουσίαν: καὶ πόλις ἀπ᾽ ἐκείνης Ἀστερία πρότερον κληθεῖσα, ὕστερον δὲ Δῆλος. Λητὼ δὲ συνελθοῦσα Διὶ κατὰ τὴν γῆν ἅπασαν ὑφ᾽ Ἥρας ἠλαύνετο, μέχρις εἰς Δῆλον ἐλθοῦσα γεννᾷ πρώτην Ἄρτεμιν, ὑφ᾽ ἧς μαιωθεῖσα ὕστερον Ἀπόλλωνα ἐγέννησεν.


Ἄρτεμις μὲν οὖν τὰ περὶ θήραν ἀσκήσασα παρθένος ἔμεινεν, Ἀπόλλων δὲ τὴν μαντικὴν μαθὼν παρὰ Πανὸς τοῦ Διὸς καὶ Ὕβρεως ἧκεν εἰς Δελφούς, χρησμῳδούσης τότε Θέμιδος:

--Apollodorus, Bibliothekes I.IV.4,  translated into Latin by Thomas Gale (1675)



One of the daughters of Coeus, Asteria, transformed herself into a quail and jumped into the sea in order to escape Jupiter’s assault, and so they named the city Asteria after her for it. Later the city was renamed Delos. When Jupiter raped Latona and Juno pursued her in vengeance, this is where Latona ended up giving birth to Artemis [Diana]. Artemis [Diana] then acted as a midwife to help her mother give birth to her twin brother Apollo. Because Artemis [Diana] loved hunting, she remained a virgin; but Apollo, learning the art of divination from Pan, and went to Delphi, where Themis was giving prophecies.


APOLLODORUS
MAP:
Name:  
Date:  1st – 2nd c. CE
Works:  Bibliotheca

REGION  UNKNOWN
Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans

BIO:
Timeline:
 The Bibliotheca is a collection of Greek myths written between the 1st and 2nd century CE. Although originally thought to be written by the Athenian author Apollodorus (2nd c. BCE), it is now thought to be an epitome of a larger work written centuries later.
 ROMAN GREECE
ARCHAIC: (through 6th c. BCE); GOLDEN AGE: (5th - 4th c. BCE); ALEXANDRIAN: (4th c. BCE - 1st c. BCE); ROMAN: (1st c. BCE - 4th c. CE); POST CONSTANTINOPLE: (4th c. CE - 8th c. CE); BYZANTINE: (post 8th c CE)

Just Say Yes: Conquering An Asexual, Martial, Epig. XIV.203

Trigger Warning: mocking of an asexual person
As with previous posts, seducing an asexual person ("Hippolytus") was unfortunately seen as a conquest.
CCIII       Puella Gaditana.
Tam tremulum crisat, tam blandum prurit, ut ipsum
      [amatorem] fecerit Hippolytum.

---Martial, Epig. XIV.203

The way the slave dancer shakes her booty, she'd make even Hippolytus want her!


Disclaimer: this text has been modified to fit the scope of this blog. The accusative noun in the second line has been changed into a less severe alternative. Considering the scarcity of asexual visibility in Latin literature, I felt it was important to include this passage despite the language it uses.



MARTIAL
MAP:
Name: Marcus Valerius Martialis
Date:  40 CE – 104 CE
Works:  Epigrammaton Libri XV*
               De Spectaculis

REGION  2 (Hispania)
Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans

BIO:
Timeline:
Originally from Bilbilis, Hispania, the poet Martial moved to Rome in the 60s CE to advance his career. His two extant works include de Spectaculis, a collection of poems written to commemorate the opening of the Colosseum, and a fifteen volume collection of epigrams. These epigrams provide valuable insight into the mores and private lives of men and women from all of the city’s social classes.     
 SILVER AGE ROME
Early Roman Lit: through 2nd c BCE: Republican Rome: through 1st c. BCE; Golden Age: 70 BCE to 18 CE; Silver Age: 18 CE to 150 CE; Age of Conflict: 150 CE - 410 CE; Byzantine: after 410 CE









Just Say Yes: A Woman's Passion vs. an Asexual Man, Propertius, IV.5.1-10

Trigger Warning: inappropriate sexual behavior, shaming a woman for her sexual behavior, inappropriate sexual behavior with an asexual person

In this poem, Propertius insults an unnamed woman for her manipulative and lusty behavior. Note that her asexual and unwilling target [coded with the mythological name Hippolytus] is seen as a conquest:


terra tuum spinis obducat, lena, sepulcrum,
    et tua, quod non uis, sentiat umbra sitim;
nec sedeant cineri Manes, et Cerberus ultor
    turpia ieiuno terreat ossa sono!
docta uel Hippolytum Veneri mollire negantem,
    concordique toro pessima semper auis,
Penelopen quoque neglecto rumore mariti
    nubere lasciuo cogeret Antinoo.
illa uelit, poterit magnes non ducere ferrum,
    et uolucris nidis esse nouerca suis.


--Propertius, Eleg.IV.5.1-10


May thorns cover your grave, you little hussy,

And may your ghost still feel insatiable lust:

May your spirit never be at rest, and

May Cerberus rattle your wicked bones with his unending barking!

You who knew how to seduce a chaste Hippolytus,

You who loom ominously over consenting lovers,

Who would even force Penelope to abandon hopes of her husband’s return

And marry the lusty Antinoos.

If she wanted to, this woman could make a magnet not attract iron,

And make a winged mother bird abandon her nest.


PROPERTIUS
MAP:
Name:  Sextus Propertius
Date:  50 – 15 BCE
Works:  Elegies

REGION  1
Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans

BIO:
Timeline:
  Propertius was an Italian-born Roman lyric poet whose love poetry provides insight into the mores of Augustan Rome. Like Catullus and Tibullus, Propertius used a pseudonym for the object of his attention; many of his love poems were addressed to “Cynthia.”
 GOLDEN AGE ROME
Early Roman Lit: through 2nd c BCE: Republican Rome: through 1st c. BCE; Golden Age: 70 BCE to 18 CE; Silver Age: 18 CE to 150 CE; Age of Conflict: 150 CE - 410 CE; Byzantine and Late Latin: after 410 CE





Thursday, April 23, 2020

M/M: Dionysus & Ampelos: Unspoken Fears, Unspoken Vows: Nonnus, Dion. X.278-287

In a Dream, Dionysus Imagines a Rival Trying to Seduce Ampelos:

"Humanae mentis dispensatrix amabilis Suada

solus mihi hic puer amabilis clemens sit.

Et ipsum haberet tanquam Bacchus contubernalem:  non cupio

Aethera inhabitare exsul. Non Deus esse

Volui, non Sol lucem praebens hominibus. Non potum traho

Nectaris, ambrosiaque, haud careo, non curo

Ampelus si amat me, et me odio habeat Saturnius!"

 Ἀνδρομέης κραδίης ταμίη, φιλοτήσιε Πειθώ,
μοῦνος ἐμοὶ νέος οὗτος ἐπήρατος ἵλαος εἴη:
καί μιν ἔχων, ἅτε Βάκχος, ὁμέψιον οὐ μενεαίνω
αἰθέρα ναιετάειν μετανάστιος, οὐ θεὸς εἶναι
ἤθελον, οὐ Φαέθων φαεσίμβροτος, οὐ πόθον ἕλκω
285νέκταρος, ἀμβροσίης δ᾽ οὐ δεύομαι: οὐκ ἀλεγίζω,

ἄμπελος εἰ φιλέει με καὶ ἐχθαίρει με Κρονίων.’


--Nonnus, Dionysiaca X.278-287; translated from the Greek by Christian Wulfius


"Persuasion, blessed goddess who manages human minds,


May this young man be attracted to me alone!
If he may love me the way he loves Bacchus,
I would give up Mt. Olympus,
I would give up my godhood,
I would be no Sun, bearing light to mortals.
I wouldn’t need to drink nectar or ambrosia,
I woudn’t miss it, I wouldn’t need it, I wouldn’t care!
If only Ampelos would love me, Jupiter himself can hate me, for all I care!"


NONNUS
MAP:
Name:  Nonnus of Panopolis
Date:  4th – 5th c. CE
Works:  Dionysiaca

REGION  4
Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans

BIO:
Timeline:
 Nonnus was an Egyptian born Roman citizen who composed the Dionysiaca, a massive 48 volume epic about the life of the god Dionysus.
 POST-CONSTANTINOPLE
ARCHAIC: (through 6th c. BCE); GOLDEN AGE: (5th - 4th c. BCE); ALEXANDRIAN: (4th c. BCE - 1st c. BCE); ROMAN: (1st c. BCE - 4th c. CE); POST CONSTANTINOPLE: (4th c. CE - 8th c. CE); BYZANTINE: (post 8th c CE)


Wednesday, April 15, 2020

A Woman's Longing: Sappho, fr. 11 (48)

Occidit quidem Luna
et Pleiades; mediae autem sunt iam
noctes, praeteritque hora;
ego vero sola dormio.

Δέδυκε μεν ἀ σελάννα
καὶ Πληΐαδεσ, μέσαι δὲ
νύκτεσ πάρα δ᾽ ἔρχετ᾽ ὤρα,
ἔγω δὲ μόνα κατεύδω.

--Sappho, fr. 11 (48). Translated from the Greek by Johannis Christianus Wolfius

The moon has set,
the Pleiades have, too;
it is now the middle of the night,
time is passing,
and I sleep alone.

SAPPHO
MAP:
Name:  Σαπφώ / Sappho
Date:  630 – 570 BCE
Works:  <lost: only fragments remain>

REGION  5
Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans

BIO:
Timeline:
Sappho was universally applauded by the ancient world as the “Tenth Muse.” Because she was one of the earliest Greek lyric poets, there is very little definitive information on Sappho’s life.  It is generally agreed that Sappho was a wealthy noblewoman from the island of Lesbos who had three brothers and a daughter named Kleis. She used her prominent social position to support a cohort of other women artists, and composed many poems about them, expressing her love for them, praising their beauty, and celebrating their marriages. Whereas earlier Greek poetry was epic poetry with serious themes of gods, warfare, and the state, Sappho’s lyric poetry is emotional, intimate and personal. Her poetry centers around womanhood and womanly love, providing rare insight into social mores of the time period. The modern term “lesbian” (a woman who is attracted to another woman) reveals the longevity of her impact upon western culture [NOTE: Although “lesbian” is the accepted term in modern English, authors in the ancient world used a different word for a homosexual woman, and only occasionally used the term “lesbian” euphemistically]. Unfortunately, although her poetry was universally revered by the Greeks and Romans alike, Sappho’s works only exist as fragments, adding mysterious allure to her larger-than-life status but unfortunately hindering our understanding of her life and thoughts.
 Archaic Greek
ARCHAIC: (through 6th c. BCE); GOLDEN AGE: (5th - 4th c. BCE); ALEXANDRIAN: (4th c. BCE - 1st c. BCE); ROMAN: (1st c. BCE - 4th c. CE); POST CONSTANTINOPLE: (4th c. CE - 8th c. CE); BYZANTINE: (post 8th c CE)

Tuesday, April 14, 2020

W/W: Equal to the Gods, Sappho, Fr. 2

Ad mulierem adamatam.
Videtur ille mihi par Divis 
vir esse, qui adversus te
sedet, & propius dulce profantem 
te auscultat
et ridentem amabiliter, quod mihi
cor in pectoribus obstupescit;
ut enim vidi te, in fauces mihi vocis
nihil amplius venit.
Imo quidem lingua fracta est, & per tenuem
Protinus cutem ignis demanavit;
oculisque nihil video; bombitantque 
mihi aures.
Et gelidus sudor defluit; tremorque
occupant totam, pallidiorque herba
sum: a moriendo paululum absens
videor exanimis.
Sed quidvis audendum est, quia egentem...

[Compare with Catullus 51: 
Ille mi par esse deo videtur,
ille, si fas est, superare divos,
qui sedens adversus identidem te
     spectat et audit
dulce ridentem, misero quod omnis
eripit sensus mihi: nam simul te,
Lesbia, aspexi, nihil est super mi
     * * * * * * * *
lingua sed torpet, tenuis sub artus
flamma demanat, sonitu suopte
tintinant aures gemina, teguntur
     lumina nocte.
otium, Catulle, tibi molestum est:
otio exsultas nimiumque gestis:
otium et reges prius et beatas
     perdidit urbes. ]

φάινεταί μοι κῆνοσ ἴσοσ τηέοισιν
ἔμμεν ὤνερ ὄστισ ἐναντίοσ τοι
ἰζάνει καὶ πλασίον ἀδυ
     φωνεύσασ ὐπακούει

καὶ γαλαίσασ ἰμμερόεν τὸ δὴ ᾽μάν
καρδίαν ἐν στήθεσιν ἐπτόασεν,
ὠσ γὰρ εὔιδον βροχέωσ σε, φώνασ
     οὐδὲν ἔτ᾽ ἔικει,

ἀλλὰ κάμ μὲν γλῳσσα ϝέαγε, λέπτον
δ᾽ αὔτικα χρῷ πῦρ ὐπαδεδρόμακεν,
ὀππάτεσσι δ᾽ οὐδὲν ορημ᾽,
     ἐπιρρόμβεισι δ᾽ ἄκουαι.

ἀ δέ μ᾽ ί᾽δρωσ κακχέεται, τρόμοσ δὲ
παῖσαν ἄγρει χλωροτέρα δὲ ποίασ
ἔμμι, τεθνάκην δ᾽ ὀλιγω ᾽πιδεύϝην
     φαίνομαι [ἄλλα].

πᾶν τόλματον [......]

--Sappho, Fr. 2. Translated into Latin from the Greek by Johannis Christian Wolfius

To a Woman Loved by Sappho:
That man seems to me
to be equal to the gods
who gets to sit across from you
and hear you flirting and laughing sweetly.
When I see you,
the heart in my chest gets thrown out of whack,
my voice gets stuck in my throat,
I can't talk.
I'm tongue-tied,
a hot flash flows through my skin,
my eyes stop working,
and humming fills up my ears.
Cold sweat overtakes me,
my entire body shakes,
I get greener than grass;
I'm not far from death, I seem to be dying.

But I gotta shoot my shot, because wretched...

SAPPHO
MAP:
Name:  Σαπφώ / Sappho
Date:  630 – 570 BCE
Works:  <lost: only fragments remain>

REGION  5
Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans

BIO:
Timeline:
Sappho was universally applauded by the ancient world as the “Tenth Muse.” Because she was one of the earliest Greek lyric poets, there is very little definitive information on Sappho’s life.  It is generally agreed that Sappho was a wealthy noblewoman from the island of Lesbos who had three brothers and a daughter named Kleis. She used her prominent social position to support a cohort of other women artists, and composed many poems about them, expressing her love for them, praising their beauty, and celebrating their marriages. Whereas earlier Greek poetry was epic poetry with serious themes of gods, warfare, and the state, Sappho’s lyric poetry is emotional, intimate and personal. Her poetry centers around womanhood and womanly love, providing rare insight into social mores of the time period. The modern term “lesbian” (a woman who is attracted to another woman) reveals the longevity of her impact upon western culture [NOTE: Although “lesbian” is the accepted term in modern English, authors in the ancient world used a different word for a homosexual woman, and only occasionally used the term “lesbian” euphemistically]. Unfortunately, although her poetry was universally revered by the Greeks and Romans alike, Sappho’s works only exist as fragments, adding mysterious allure to her larger-than-life status but unfortunately hindering our understanding of her life and thoughts.
 Archaic Greek
ARCHAIC: (through 6th c. BCE); GOLDEN AGE: (5th - 4th c. BCE); ALEXANDRIAN: (4th c. BCE - 1st c. BCE); ROMAN: (1st c. BCE - 4th c. CE); POST CONSTANTINOPLE: (4th c. CE - 8th c. CE); BYZANTINE: (post 8th c CE)


Monday, April 13, 2020

M/M: Be My King: Dionysus & Ampelos, Nonnos, Dion. X.193-216


Hunc quidem habens Bacchus consobrinum mollis ludens

querebat admirantem profundens ob pulchritudinem, vocem

tamquam mortalis: immortale v. dolosus abscondebat formam:

"Quis te pater plantavit? Quis caelestis (te) genuit venter?

Que Charitum te enixa? quis (te) aravit pulcher Apollo?

Dic amice, non absconde tuum genus. Siquidem venis

non alatus alter Cupido, telis sine, absque pharetra.

quis deorum te plantavit concumbens cum Venere?

namque ego formido tuam matrem, Cyprin dicere.

Ne genitorem Vulcanum aut Martem tuum dicam, 
sin vero tu, quem vocant ab aethere venisti Mercurius,

ostende mihi pennas leves, et vinas alas talarlium

qui habes intonsam sublimem super cervice comam

nisi mihi ipse veneris sine cithara. sine arcu

phoebus intonsus demissos cincinnos vibrans.

Si vero Saturnius me plantavit. Tu vero terrestri agenere

boum cornua habentium Satyrorum brevis qui sanguine fers,

aequaliter mihi regna deo mortalis, non enim arguet 
caelestem tuam imaginem caelestis sanguis Bacchi

sed quid voco te ex exigua aliqua familia.

Cognosco tuum sanguinem, quamvis tegere studes.

solite peperit concumbens Luna,

Narcisso gratioso prorsus similem. Caelestem enim

consimilem imaginem habes cornutae simulacrum lunae.

tale verbum dixit.

τὸν μὲν ἔχων Διόνυσος ὁμέψιον, ἁβρὸν ἀθύρων,  
εἴρετο θαμβαλέην προχέων ἐπὶ κάλλεϊ φωνὴν
ὡς βροτός, ἀθανάτην δὲ δολοπλόκος ἔκρυφε μορφήν:

‘Τίς σε πατὴρ ἐφύτευσε; τίς οὐρανίη τέκε γαστήρ;
τίς Χαρίτων σε λόχευσε; τίς ἤροσε καλός Ἀπόλλων;
εἰπέ, φίλος, μὴ κρύπτε τεὸν γένος: εἰ μὲν ἱκάνεις
ἄπτερος ἄλλος Ἔρως βελέων δίχα, νόσφι φαρέτρης,
τίς μακάρων σε φύτευσε παρευνάζων Ἀφροδίτῃ;
καὶ γὰρ ἐγὼ τρομέω σέο μητέρα Κύπριν ἐνίψαι,
μὴ γενέτην Ἥφαιστον ἢ Ἄρεα σεῖο καλέσσω.
εἰ δὲ σύ, τὸν καλέουσιν, ἀπ᾽ αἰθέρος ἤλυθες Ἑρμῆς,
δεῖξον ἐμοὶ πτερὰ κοῦφα καὶ ἔμπνοα ταρσὰ πεδίλων.
πῶς μεθέπεις ἄτμητον ἐπήορον αὐχένι χαίτην;
μὴ σύ μοι αὐτὸς ἵκανες ἄτερ κιθάρης, δίχα τόξου,
Φοῖβος ἀκερσικόμης κεχαλασμένα βόστρυχα σείων;
εἰ Κρονίδης με φύτευσε, σὺ δὲ χθονίης ἀπὸ φύτλης
βουκεράων Σατύρων μινυώριον αἷμα κομίζεις,
ἶσον ἐμοὶ βασίλευε, θεῷ βροτός: οὐ γὰρ ἐλέγξει
οὐράνιον τεὸν εἶδος Ὀλύμπιον αἷμα Λυαίου.
ἀλλὰ τί κικλήσκω σε μινυνθαδίης ἀπὸ φύτλης;
γινώσκω τεὸν αἷμα, καὶ εἰ κρύπτειν μενεαίνεις:
ἠελίῳ σε λόχευσε παρευνηθεῖσα Σελήνη
Ναρκίσσῳ χαρίεντι πανείκελον: αἰθέριον γὰρ
εἴκελον εἶδος ἔχεις, κεραῆς ἴνδαλμα Σελήνης.’


--Nonnus, Dionysiaca, X.193-216- Translated into Latin from the Greek by Eilhard Lubin



Bacchus hid his immortal form from the youth
And approached him as a mortal, flirting with him
with these words: “Who’s your father?
What immortal womb gave you life?
What Grace raised you? Admit it—Apollo’s your father!
Tell me, darling (amice), don’t hide your lineage.
You act like you’re some wingless Cupid, but without weapons and a bow.
What god courted Venus to create you?
For I hesitate to call Venus your mother,
Since Vulcan or Mars can’t be your father.
Or are you the god they call Mercury?
Then show me your feathers, and the wings on your ankles.
Your long hair flows down your neck, but you don’t have a cithara.
Are you Phoebus, shaking his long wavy hair—but without your signature bow?
If Jupiter is my father, but you are mortal-born,
A short-lived satyr with cow-like horns,
Be king alongside me, equal to equal, a god and a mortal together,
For no one would question your godhood
While you were by my side.
Oh! I recognize your lineage—the one you’re trying to hide!
The Moon herself is your mother, having united with the Sun,
You’re as beautiful as Narcissus. For you have the same
Heavenly form as the moon—you both have horns!”



NONNUS
MAP:
Name:  Nonnus of Panopolis
Date:  4th – 5th c. CE
Works:  Dionysiaca

REGION  4
Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans

BIO:
Timeline:
 Nonnus was an Egyptian born Roman citizen who composed the Dionysiaca, a massive 48 volume epic about the life of the god Dionysus.
 POST-CONSTANTINOPLE
ARCHAIC: (through 6th c. BCE); GOLDEN AGE: (5th - 4th c. BCE); ALEXANDRIAN: (4th c. BCE - 1st c. BCE); ROMAN: (1st c. BCE - 4th c. CE); POST CONSTANTINOPLE: (4th c. CE - 8th c. CE); BYZANTINE: (post 8th c CE)