Saturday, October 23, 2021

Own Voices: A Fragment of Cleomachus, Poetae Lyrici Graeci xxxii

 Quis mihi calicem ademit?  Ego bibens…

Τίς την υδρίην ημών εψόφησ; εγω πίνων...

--Cleomachus, Poetae Lyrici Graeci Fragment II.32 (1853); Translated into Latin by K. Masters

Who took my cup? I was still drinking that…

CLEOMACHUS

MAP:

Name: Cleomachus  

Date:  4th century BCE

Works:  [fragments]

 

REGION  5

Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans


BIO:

Timeline:

According to Strabo, Cleomachus was a boxer who became a poet after falling in love with a man. The Christian author Tertullian adds more information to this transformation, adding that the poet “covered the scars of their gauntlets with bangles, and exchanged their athletic uniform for a dress.”

 HELLENISTIC GREEK

ARCHAIC: (through 6th c. BCE); GOLDEN AGE: (5th - 4th c. BCE); HELLENISTIC: (4th c. BCE - 1st c. BCE); ROMAN: (1st c. BCE - 4th c. CE); POST CONSTANTINOPLE: (4th c. CE - 8th c. CE); BYZANTINE: (post 8th c CE)


When Your Name Becomes A Verb: Cleomachus' Fame, Tricha On Meters p. 34

 Quod “Cleomachare” dicitur, est quibusdam metris uti, quibus Cleomachus poeta uti solebat. Qui primum pugil fuit, deinde in iuvenis cuiusdam amore  raptus, versus componere incepit.

τούτο δε και κλεομάχειον λέγεται, ότι πολλω αυτω  ό ποιητής Κλεόμαχος χρήται, ος πύκτης μέν πρότερον, ως φασίν, ήν, ερασθείς δε τινος νέου, την ποιητικήν μετεχειρίσατο.

--Tricha, De Metris p. 34; Translated into Latin by K. Masters


“To Cleomachize” is to use the poetic meter that Cleomachus used to use. Cleomachus was a boxer at first, then he fell in love with some guy (or so it goes), and began to write poetry.


TRICHA

MAP:

Name:  Tricha

Date:  ???

Works:   On Meters

 

REGION  UNKNOWN

BIO:

Timeline:

 Little is known about the life of Tricha, but this author’s work On Meters preserves numerous quotes of otherwise lost poets. It can be found in Appendix ad Draconem Stratonicensem (Teubner, 1814).

 TIMELINE UNKNOWN

Challenging Misogyny: Aulus Gellius, Noct. Att. I.vi.1-3

Multis et eruditis viris audientibus legebatur oratio Metelli Numidici, gravis ac diserti viri, quam in censura dixit ad populum de ducendis uxoribus, cum eum ad matrimonia capessenda hortaretur. In ea oratione ita scriptum fuit: "Si sine uxore possemus, Quirites, omnes ea molestia careremus; set quoniam ita natura tradidit, ut nec cum illis satis commode, nec sine illis uno modo vivi possit, saluti perpetuae potius quam brevi voluptati consulendum est." Videbatur quibusdam Q. Metellum censorem, cui consilium esset ad uxores ducendas populum hortari, non oportuisse de molestia incommodisque perpetuis rei uxoriae confiteri, neque id hortari magis esse quam dissuadere absterrereque; set contra in id potius orationem debuisse sumi dicebant, ut et nullas plerumque esse in matrimoniis molestias adseveraret et, si quae tamen accidere nonnumquam viderentur, parvas et leves facilesque esse toleratu diceret maioribusque eas emolumentis et voluptatibus oblitterari easdemque ipsas neque omnibus neque naturae vitio, set quorundam maritorum culpa et iniustitia evenire. 

 

--Aulus Gellius, Noctes Atticae I.VI.1-3


The following speech was delivered by the serious and articulate Metellus Numidicus to an audience of many learned men. He delivered this speech on marriage when he was a Censor, when he ought to have encouraged people to marry. In this speech, he said,

 

“Citizens, if we could live without wives, we would all live a trouble-free life. But since nature has arranged that ‘we can’t live with them, can’t live without them,’ we should probably get married so we can have future stability instead of brief pleasure.”

Many people think that as a Censor [who ought to have encouraged people to get married], Metellus shouldn’t have brought up the inconveniences and usual troubles of matrimony, and that this speech seemed to dissuade people from getting married instead of encouraging them. Instead, they say he ought to have said that there aren’t really any troubles in marriage, and if some happen occasionally, they are easy to manage, and that the good times outweigh the bad times. Moreover, these “bad times” do not occur naturally, but only happen because of the spouse’s misdeed.

AULUS GELLIUS

MAP:

Name:  Aulus Gellius

Date:  2nd. c. CE

Works:  Attic Nights

 

REGION  UNKNOWN

Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans


BIO:

Timeline:

 Aulus Gellius lived during the 2nd century CE. His work, the Attic Nights, are a collection of anecdotes about literature, history, and grammar.  From internal evidence, we can deduce that he was in the Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius’ social circle, having close friendships with Herodes Atticus and Fronto.

 SILVER AGE LATIN

 

Early Roman Lit: through 2nd c BCE: Republican Rome: through 1st c. BCE; Golden Age: 70 BCE to 18 CE; Silver Age: 18 CE to 150 CE; Age of Conflict: 150 CE - 410 CE; Byzantine and Late Latin: after 410 CE


Saturday, October 16, 2021

Found Family: Cleomachus, The Boxer/Poet: Strabo, Geog. XIV.1.41

Item Cleomachus pugil, qui in cinaedi* cuiusdam & ancillae amore incidens, quae a cinaedo alebatur, cinaedorum et orationem et mores est imitatus.

καὶ Κλεόμαχος ὁ πύκτης, ὃς εἰς ἔρωτα ἐμπεσὼν κιναίδου* τινὸς καὶ παιδίσκης ὑπὸ τῷ κιναίδῳ τρεφομένης ἀπεμιμήσατο τὴν ἀγωγὴν τῶν παρὰ τοῖς κιναίδοις διαλέκτων καὶ τῆς ἠθοποιίας:

--Strabo, Geographica XIV.1.40; Translated into Latin by Conradus Heresbachius  (1539)

Cleomachus the Boxer fell in love with a certain cinaedus* and the girl he was raising, and began to imitate the speech patterns and mannerisms of a cinaedus.

* The term cinaedus is an umbrella term and cannot be translated. The original term refers to a bird that wiggles its tail, used to describe exotic dancers who "shake their booty." It can refer to prostitutes, same-sex couples, non-binary persons, etc. Although some authors use it as an insult (e.g., Catullus), it does not always have a negative connotation; Phlegon of Tralles uses this term to describe men capable of giving birth. 

STRABO

MAP:

Name:  Strabo

Date:  64 BCE – 24 CE

Works:  Geographica

 

REGION  4 / 5

Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans


BIO:

Timeline:

 Strabo was a Greek author who lived in Amasia (modern day Turkey) during the 1st century BCE. His magnum opus, a seventeen volume study of geography, was the result of his extensive travels throughout his lifetime.

 GOLDEN AGE LATIN

Early Roman Lit: through 2nd c BCE: Republican Rome: through 1st c. BCE; Golden Age: 70 BCE to 18 CE; Silver Age: 18 CE to 150 CE; Age of Conflict: 150 CE - 410 CE; Byzantine and Late Latin: after 410 CE



Wednesday, October 13, 2021

A Boxer, and A Fighter By Her Trade: Cleomachus, Tertullian de Pallio IV.4

Sed et qui ante Tirynthium accesserat, pugil Cleomachus, post Olympiae cum incredibili mutatu de masculo fluxisset, intra cutem caesus et ultra, inter Fullonesiam Nouianos coronandus meritoque mimographo Lentulo in Catinensibus commemoratus, utique sicut uestigia cestuum uiriis occupauit, ita et endromidis solocem aliqua multicia synthesi extrusit.

--Tertullian de Pallio IV.4


But there’s someone who surpasses the “Tirynthian” [Hercules*]: the boxer Cleomachus! After his masculinity underwent an unbelievable transformation at Olympia, (where he had his surgery) he was lauded in Novius’ Fullers’ Tale and memorialized in the mime Lentulus’ Catinians. He covered the scars of his gauntlets with bangles, and exchanged his athletic uniform for a dress.


TERTULLIAN

MAP:

Name:  Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus

Date:  2nd century CE

Works:  Apologia

De Pallio

 

REGION  3

Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans


BIO:

Timeline:

 Tertullian was an early Christian theologian who lived in Carthage during the 2nd century CE. He was a prolific author, and his works deeply influenced early Christian thought.

 AGE OF CONFLICT

Early Roman Lit: through 2nd c BCE: Republican Rome: through 1st c. BCE; Golden Age: 70 BCE to 18 CE; Silver Age: 18 CE to 150 CE; Age of Conflict: 150 CE - 410 CE; Byzantine and Late Latin: after 410 CE


Sunday, October 10, 2021

Caeneus: A Trans Warrior Battling Centaurs, Apollodorus Epitome xxii

 Trigger Warning: rape

Caeneus, virgo ab Neptuno compressa, petiit ut vir fieret, et atrotus*; et sic evenit. Qui cum pugnaret contra centauros, multos se incolumi interfecit; tandem reliqui centaurorum eum circumstantes abietibus in terram compresserunt et suffocaverunt.

ὅτι Καινεὺς πρότερον ἦν γυνή, συνελθόντος δὲ αὐτῇ Ποσειδῶνος ᾐτήσατο ἀνὴρ γενέσθαι ἄτρωτος: διὸ καὶ ἐν τῇ πρὸς Κενταύρους μάχῃ τραυμάτων καταφρονῶν πολλοὺς τῶν Κενταύρων ἀπώλεσεν, οἱ δὲ λοιποί, περιστάντες αὐτῷ, ἐλάταις τύπτοντες ἔχωσαν εἰς γῆν.

atrotus, a, um (ἄτρωτος ): unwounded, invulnerable 

--Apollodorus, Epitome I.22; Translated into Latin by K. Masters

 

Caeneus was originally a woman, but after being attacked by Poseidon, asked to become an invulnerable man. Therefore, when he was battling the centaurs, he slew many of them without receiving any injury himself, until finally the remaining centaurs surrounded him and drove him into the earth with fir trees. 

APOLLODORUS

MAP:

Name:  

Date:  1st – 2nd c. CE

Works:  Bibliotheca

 

REGION  UNKNOWN

Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans



BIO:

Timeline:

 The Bibliotheca is a collection of Greek myths written between the 1st and 2nd century CE. Although originally thought to be written by the Athenian author Apollodorus (2nd c. BCE), it is now thought to be an epitome of a larger work written centuries later.

 ROMAN GREECE

ARCHAIC: (through 6th c. BCE); GOLDEN AGE: (5th - 4th c. BCE); HELLENISTIC: (4th c. BCE - 1st c. BCE); ROMAN: (1st c. BCE - 4th c. CE); POST CONSTANTINOPLE: (4th c. CE - 8th c. CE); BYZANTINE: (post 8th c CE)


Monday, October 4, 2021

Challenging Gender Roles: Alexander the Great's Gender-Bending Outfits, Athenaeus, Deipnos. XII.53

 Ephippus vero scribit: "Etiam sacras vestes in cenis gestasse Alexandrum: nunc quidem Hammonis purpuram, & fissiles soleas & cornua, velut ipse Deus; nunc vero Dianae, cuius cultum saepe etiam sumebat quum curru veheretur, Persica quidem stola indutus, sed ita ut supra humeros arcus Deae & spiculum emineret. Subinde etiam Mercurii cultum; alias quidem fere ac quotidie chlamydem purpueram & tunicam medio albo intertexto & causiam cui diadema regium circum positum; ubi vero cum amicis una esset, talaria, & petasum in capite, & caduceum in manu: saepe vero etiam leoninam pellem & clavam, veluti Hercules."

ἔφιππος δέ φησιν ὡς Ἀλέξανδρος καὶ τὰς ἱερὰς  ἐσθῆτας ἐφόρει ἐν τοῖς δείπνοις, ὁτὲ μὲν τὴν τοῦ Ἄμμωνος πορφυρίδα καὶ περισχιδεῖς καὶ κέρατα καθάπερ ὁ θεός, ὁτὲ δὲ τὴν τῆς Ἀρτέμιδος, ἣν καὶ ἐπὶ τοῦ ἅρματος ἐφόρει πολλάκις, ἔχων τὴν Περσικὴν στολήν, ὑποφαίνων ἄνωθεν τῶν ὤμων τό τε τόξον καὶ τὴν σιβύνην, ἐνίοτε δὲ καὶ τὴν τοῦ Ἑρμοῦ: τὰ μὲν ἄλλα σχεδὸν καὶ καθ᾽ ἑκάστην ἡμέραν χλαμύδα τε πορφυρᾶν καὶ χιτῶνα μεσόλευκον καὶ τὴν καυσίαν ἔχουσαν τὸ διάδημα τὸ βασιλικόν, ἐν δὲ τῇ συνουσίᾳ τά τε πέδιλα καὶ τὸν πέτασον ἐπὶ τῇ κεφαλῇ καὶ τὸ κηρύκειον ἐν τῇ χειρί, πολλάκις δὲ καὶ λεοντῆν καὶ ῥόπαλον ὥσπερ ὁ Ἡρακλῆς.

--Athenaeus, Deipnosophistae XII.53, Translated into Latin by Translated into Latin by Iohannes Schweighaeuser (1804)

Ephippus also states that Alexander the Great also wore sacred garments to dinner. Sometime he wore Ammon’s sacred purple garb, open-toe sandals, and horns, just like the god would. Sometimes he dressed in Artemis’ garb; he usually did this when he was riding in a chariot, with the Persian cloak, wearing the goddess’ bow on his shoulders and brandishing her spear in his hand. Sometimes he dressed like Hermes; but on most days, he would wear a purple cloak, a tunic with white stripes, and a royal miter, with a crown on top. When he was hanging out with his entourage, he would wear Hermes' iconic sandals and hat, with the god's Caduceus in his hand. Sometimes he wore even Hercules’ lion pelt and club.”


ATHENAEUS

MAP:

Name:  Athenaeus

Date:  2nd c. CE

Works:  Deipnosophists

 

REGION  4

Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans


BIO:

Timeline:

 Athenaeus was a scholar who lived in Naucratis (modern Egypt) during the reign of the Antonines. His fifteen volume work, the Deipnosophists, are invaluable for the amount of quotations they preserve of otherwise lost authors, including the poetry of Sappho.

 ROMAN GREEK LITERATURE

ARCHAIC: (through 6th c. BCE); GOLDEN AGE: (5th - 4th c. BCE); HELLENISTIC: (4th c. BCE - 1st c. BCE); ROMAN: (1st c. BCE - 4th c. CE); POST CONSTANTINOPLE: (4th c. CE - 8th c. CE); BYZANTINE: (post 8th c CE)