Wednesday, July 28, 2021

Challenging Gender Roles: the Olympic Gold Medalist Cynisca, Pausanias, Desc. Graec. III.xv.1

 Ad platanetum est etiam Cyniscae Archidami regis filiae monumentum heroicum. Ea prima feminarum omnium equos alere instituit, & prima ludis Olympicis de quadrigis palmam meruit.

πρὸς δὲ τῷ Πλατανιστᾷ καὶ Κυνίσκας ἐστὶν ἡρῷον, θυγατρὸς Ἀρχιδάμου βασιλεύοντος Σπαρτιατῶν: πρώτη δὲ ἱπποτρόφησε γυναικῶν καὶ Ὀλυμπίασι πρώτη νίκην ἀνείλετο ἅρματι.  

–Pausanias, Descriptio Graeciae III.xv.1; Translated into Latin by Romulus Amaseus (1696)

By the grove of plane trees [in Sparta] is a monument to the hero Cynisca, the daughter of king Archidamus.  She was the first of all women to train horses, and was the first woman to win the chariot-race in the Olympic games.

PAUSANIAS

MAP:

Name:  Pausanias

Date:  110 – 180 CE

Works:  Description of Greece

 

REGION  5

Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans


BIO:

Timeline:

 Pausanias was a Greek writer who lived during the era of the “Five Good Emperors.” His work, the Description of Greece, is an important source for geographical, historical, archaeological, and cultural information about ancient Greece.

 ROMAN GREEK

ARCHAIC: (through 6th c. BCE); GOLDEN AGE: (5th - 4th c. BCE); HELLENISTIC: (4th c. BCE - 1st c. BCE); ROMAN: (1st c. BCE - 4th c. CE); POST CONSTANTINOPLE: (4th c. CE - 8th c. CE); BYZANTINE: (post 8th c CE)



Tiresias and Their Daughter: Pausanias, Desc. Graec. IX.xxxiii.1-2

Mons Tilphussius & Tilphussa item fons, qui dicitur, ab Haliarto stadia abest quinquaginta, ut maxime. Traditum est Graecorum monumentis, Argivos, quum Polynicis filios secuti Thebas cepissent, dum ad Delphicum Apollinem cum reliqua praeda vatem etiam Tiresiam pertraherent, sitientem illum in via hausta de Tilphussa fonte aqua, animam statim egisse. Est eius sepulchrum ad ipsum fontem. Vatis filiam Manto ab Argivis Apollini aiunt sacratam: sed transmisisse eam classe (iubente deo) Colophonem in Ioniam, ibique Rhacio Cretensi nuptam. Quae de Tiresia dicuntur alia, de annorum scilicet quem vixisse scripserunt numero, & quod vir evaserit ex femina, quodque in Odyssea Homerus eum unum sapientem esse apud inferos dixerit, omnia haec omnes iam toties audita norunt.

τὸ δὲ ὄρος τὸ Τιλφούσιον καὶ ἡ Τιλφοῦσα καλουμένη πηγὴ σταδίους μάλιστα Ἁλιάρτου πεντήκοντα ἀπέχουσι. λέγεται δὲ ὑπὸ Ἑλλήνων Ἀργείους μετὰ τῶν Πολυνείκους παίδων ἑλόντας Θήβας ἐς Δελφοὺς τῷ θεῷ καὶ ἄλλα τῶν λαφύρων καὶ Τειρεσίαν ἄγειν, καὶ—εἴχετο γὰρ δίψῃ—καθ᾽ ὁδόν φασιν αὐτὸν πιόντα ἀπὸ τῆς Τιλφούσης ἀφεῖναι τὴν ψυχήν: καὶ ἔστι τάφος αὐτῷ πρὸς τῇ πηγῇ. [2] τὴν δὲ θυγατέρα τοῦ Τειρεσίου δοθῆναι μέν φασι τῷ Ἀπόλλωνι ὑπὸ τῶν Ἀργείων, προστάξαντος δὲ τοῦ θεοῦ ναυσὶν ἐς τὴν νῦν Ἰωνίαν καὶ Ἰωνίας ἐς τὴν Κολοφωνίαν περαιωθῆναι. καὶ ἡ μὲν αὐτόθι συνῴκησεν ἡ Μαντὼ Ῥακίῳ Κρητί: τὰ δὲ ἄλλα ἐς Τειρεσίαν, ἐτῶν τε ἀριθμὸν ὧν γεγράφασιν αὐτὸν βιῶναι καὶ ὡς ἐκ γυναικὸς ἐς ἄνδρα ἠλλάγη καὶ ὅτι Ὅμηρος ἐποίησεν ἐν Ὀδυσσείᾳ συνετὸν εἶναι γνώμην Τειρεσίαν τῶν ἐν Ἅιδου μόνον, ταῦτα μὲν καὶ οἱ πάντες ἴσασιν ἀκοῇ. 


--Pausanias, Descriptio Graeciae IX.xxxiii.1-2; translated into Latin by Romulus Amaseus (1696)

Mount Tilphussius and the Tilphussan spring are no more than fifty stadia from Haliartus. It is said that after they had captured Thebes, the Argives and the children of Polynices were transporting the prophet Tiresias and other spoils of war to Delphi, to dedicate them to Apollo.  Being thirsty, Tiresias drank the water from this spring and died. Therefore his tomb is near this spring.

They say that Manto, Tiresias’ daughter, was dedicated to Apollo by the Argives, and under the god’s command, she was sent by ship to Colophon in Ionia, where she was married to the Cretan Rhacius.

The rest of the myth of Tiresias—how long he lived, that he changed from woman to man, and that in the Odyssey, Homer states that he alone retained wisdom in the Underworld—everybody already knows about.

 

PAUSANIAS

MAP:

Name:  Pausanias

Date:  110 – 180 CE

Works:  Description of Greece

 

REGION  5

Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans


BIO:

Timeline:

 Pausanias was a Greek writer who lived during the era of the “Five Good Emperors.” His work, the Description of Greece, is an important source for geographical, historical, archaeological, and cultural information about ancient Greece.

 ROMAN GREEK

ARCHAIC: (through 6th c. BCE); GOLDEN AGE: (5th - 4th c. BCE); HELLENISTIC: (4th c. BCE - 1st c. BCE); ROMAN: (1st c. BCE - 4th c. CE); POST CONSTANTINOPLE: (4th c. CE - 8th c. CE); BYZANTINE: (post 8th c CE)


Monday, July 26, 2021

In Praise of Sappho: Greek Anthology, VII.407

 

Dulcissimum amantibus iuvenibus levamentum amorum,

O Sappho, cum Musis sane te Pieria

aut Helicon hederosus, paria spirantem illis,

ornat, te Eresi Musam in Aeolide;

aut etiam Hymen Hymenaeus habens bene-fulgidam picam,

tecum sponsalibus stat super thalamis;

aut Cinyrae novum germen ploranti Veneri

congemens, caelicolarum sacrum lucum vides:

ubique, veneranda, salve aeque ac dii! tuas enim cautiones

immortalium ducimus nunc adhuc filias.


ἥδιστον φιλέουσι νέοις προσανάκλιμ᾽ ἐρώτων,

Σαπφώ, σὺν Μούσαις ἦ ῥά σε Πιερίη

ἢ Ἑλικὼν εὔκισσος, ἴσα πνείουσαν ἐκείναις,

κοσμεῖ, τὴν Ἐρέσῳ Μοῦσαν ἐν Αἰολίδι,

ἢ καὶ Ὑμὴν Ὑμέναιος ἔχων εὐφεγγέα πεύκην

σὺν σοὶ νυμφιδίων ἵσταθ᾽ ὑπὲρ θαλάμων

ἢ Κινύρεω νέον ἔρνος ὀδυρομένῃ Ἀφροδίτῃ

σύνθρηνος, μακάρων ἱερὸν ἄλσος ὁρῇς:

πάντῃ, πότνια, χαῖρε θεοῖς ἴσα: σὰς γὰρ ἀοιδὰς

ἀθανάτων ἄγομεν νῦν ἔτι θυγατέρας.

--Dioscorides, Greek Anthology VII.407; Translated into Latin by Hugo Grottius

O Sappho, sweetest support of young people in love,

Whom Pieria & ivy-covered Helicon revere alongside the Muses,

(you breathe* the same inspirational air)

O Muse of Aeolian Eresus.

O Sappho, you who stand beside Hymen & Hymenaeus,

Presiding over wedding ceremonies with a brilliantly shining pine torch**.

O Sappho, you who watch over the glade sacred to the gods

Grieving with Aphrodite as she mourns the Cinyras’ sprout,***

Hail, my Queen! Equal in every way to the gods,

We count your songs among the children of the Divine.

 

*  πνέω can refer to both inhaling and exhaling; this is a reference to the literal meaning of inspiration (in + spiro / ἐμ + πνέω)

** torches are symbols of wedding ceremonies, similar to modern bouquets

*** a reference to Venus' lover Adonis, whose death is recounted in Sappho's poetry

<Anonymous>

MAP:

Name:  ????

Date: 

Works:  Greek Anthology; Anthologia Graeca; Florilegii Graecii

 

REGION  UNKNOWN

Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans


BIO:

Timeline:

 The Greek Anthology is a modern collection of Greek lyric poetry compiled from various sources over the course of Greco-Roman literature. The current collection was created from two major sources, one from the 10th century CE and one from the 14th century CE. The anthology contains authors spanning the entirety of Greek literature, from archaic poets to Byzantine Christian poets. 

 Byzantine Greek

ARCHAIC: (through 6th c. BCE); GOLDEN AGE: (5th - 4th c. BCE); HELLENISTIC: (4th c. BCE - 1st c. BCE); ROMAN: (1st c. BCE - 4th c. CE); POST CONSTANTINOPLE: (4th c. CE - 8th c. CE); BYZANTINE: (post 8th c CE)


 

 

Sunday, July 25, 2021

Challenging Gender Roles: The Poet Corinna, Pausanias, Descriptio Graeciae, IX.xxii.3

Trigger Warning: misogyny, sexism

Corinnae quidem, quae sola apud Tanagraeos cantica fecit, in celebri urbis loco est monumentum: in gymnasio ipsa picta est, taenia redimita: victoriae illud insigne, quod Thebis carmine Pindarum vicerit. Vicisse ea arbitror linguae causa. Neque enim Dorica, uti Pindarus, cecinit, sed ea quam essent facile Aeolenses percepturi. Quod autem fuerit ea sui temporis feminarum formosissima, non est difficile ex ipsius imagine coniicere.

[3] Κορίννης δέ, ἣ μόνη δὴ ἐν Τανάγρᾳ ᾁσματα ἐποίησε, ταύτης ἔστι μὲν μνῆμα ἐν περιφανεῖ τῆς πόλεως, ἔστι δὲ ἐν τῷ γυμνασίῳ γραφή, ταινίᾳ τὴν κεφαλὴν ἡ Κόριννα ἀναδουμένη τῆς νίκης ἕνεκα ἣν Πίνδαρον ᾁσματι ἐνίκησεν ἐν Θήβαις. φαίνεται δέ μοι νικῆσαι τῆς διαλέκτου τε ἕνεκα, ὅτι ᾖδεν οὐ τῇ φωνῇ τῇ Δωρίδι ὥσπερ ὁ Πίνδαρος ἀλλὰ ὁποίᾳ συνήσειν ἔμελλον Αἰολεῖς, καὶ ὅτι ἦν γυναικῶν τότε δὴ καλλίστη τὸ εἶδος, εἴ τι τῇ εἰκόνι δεῖ τεκμαίρεσθαι.

--Pausanias, Descriptio Graeciae IX.xxii.3; Translated into Latin by Romulus Amaseus (1696)

There is a famous monument in the heart of the city for Corinna, the only famous poet from Tanagra; it lies in the Gymnasium. Corinna is depicted with a ribbon in her hair, the trophy of her victory over the poet Pindar in Thebes. It seems to me that she won because of her dialect; she didn’t use the Doric tongue (which Pindar used), but rather the Aeolian dialect. The fact that she was super pretty [if the she looks anything like the statue of her] probably helped her win, too.

PAUSANIAS

MAP:

Name:  Pausanias

Date:  110 – 180 CE

Works:  Description of Greece

 

REGION  5

Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans


BIO:

Timeline:

 Pausanias was a Greek writer who lived during the era of the “Five Good Emperors.” His work, the Description of Greece, is an important source for geographical, historical, archaeological, and cultural information about ancient Greece.

 ROMAN GREEK

ARCHAIC: (through 6th c. BCE); GOLDEN AGE: (5th - 4th c. BCE); HELLENISTIC: (4th c. BCE - 1st c. BCE); ROMAN: (1st c. BCE - 4th c. CE); POST CONSTANTINOPLE: (4th c. CE - 8th c. CE); BYZANTINE: (post 8th c CE)



M/M: The Lion of Chaeronea: Pausanias, Descriptio Graeciae, IX.xl.9

The Lion of Chaeronea was a memorial dedicated to the Theban Band (an army of paired lovers) who fell at the Battle of Chaeronea in 338 BCE


Proximo urbi loco est commune Thebanis sepulcrum, iis qui in acie contra Philippum stantes ceciderunt. Nulla est apposita inscriptio. Insigne tumuli leo est, ad eorum virorum animi magnitudinem significanda. Inscriptum (ut opinor) propterea nihil est,quod illorum hominum virtutem dii non fortunassent.

προσιόντων δὲ τῇ πόλει πολυάνδριον Θηβαίων ἐστὶν ἐν τῷ πρὸς Φίλιππον ἀγῶνι ἀποθανόντων. ἐπιγέγραπται μὲν δὴ ἐπίγραμμα οὐδέν, ἐπίθημα δ᾽ ἔπεστιν αὐτῷ λέων: φέροι δ᾽ ἂν ἐς τῶν ἀνδρῶν μάλιστα τὸν θυμόν: ἐπίγραμμα δὲ ἄπεστιν ἐμοὶ δοκεῖν ὅτι οὐδὲ ἐοικότα τῇ τόλμῃ σφίσι τὰ ἐκ τοῦ δαίμονος ἠκολούθησε.

--Pausanias, Descriptio Graeciae IX.xl.10; Translated into Latin by Roulus Amaseus (1696)

Next to the city is a memorial for the soldiers who fell in the battle against Philipp. The memorial has no inscription; it is a lion, signifying the courage of these men. I think the reason there is no inscription is that victory did not accompany their daring effort.

PAUSANIAS

MAP:

Name:  Pausanias

Date:  110 – 180 CE

Works:  Description of Greece

 

REGION  5

Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans


BIO:

Timeline:

 Pausanias was a Greek writer who lived during the era of the “Five Good Emperors.” His work, the Description of Greece, is an important source for geographical, historical, archaeological, and cultural information about ancient Greece.

 ROMAN GREEK

ARCHAIC: (through 6th c. BCE); GOLDEN AGE: (5th - 4th c. BCE); HELLENISTIC: (4th c. BCE - 1st c. BCE); ROMAN: (1st c. BCE - 4th c. CE); POST CONSTANTINOPLE: (4th c. CE - 8th c. CE); BYZANTINE: (post 8th c CE)



Saturday, July 24, 2021

Challenging Gender Roles: The Warrior Poet Telesilla Saves the Day, Pausanias, Desc. Graec.II.xx.8-9

Supra theatrum Veneris fanum: in cuius fronte e pavimento columna surgit, cui insistit Telesilla quae cantica fecit. Ad pedes eius carminum volumina iacent: ipsa galea aspicit, quam capiti iam ipositura manu tenet. Fuit Telesilla haec, & aliis de causis inter feminas illustris & honorem praecipuum ex poetica meruit. Haec illa Telesilla est quae tale virtutis muliebris documentum dedit. Quo tempore Argivi maiore quam dicendo explicari possit clade a Cleomene Anaxandridae filio Lacedaemoniorum rege afflicti sunt, aliis in prelio caesis, ii qui supplices in Argi lucum confugerant, parti ad pacis conditiones evocati, nihilo minus violati sunt; partim vero ubi se dolo circumvento  senserunt, seipsos & lucum simul cremarunt. Quare Cleomenes consumta Argivorum militari aetate & robore, ad Argos oppugnandum confestim Lacedaemoniorum copias duxit. Ibi Telesilla ad murorum praesidia servitiis, & iis omnibus qui per aetatem arma ferre non possent, armandatis, e domibus & templis aris, quae reliqua fortuna belli fecerat, refixis, omnes quae integra aetate erant feminas obarmavit, & ibi eas collocavit, qua ad oppidum Lacedaemonios accessuros exploratum habebat. neque vero illae hoste approprinquante bellico clamore exterritae sunt: quin fortiter & praesenti animo pugnantes, hostium impressionem sustinuerunt. At Lacedaemonii quum cogitare coepissent, si feminas violassent, invidiosam fore eam victoriam: sin victi essent, se turpissime discessuros, omnem ab illis belli ira abstinuerunt. 

ὑπὲρ δὲ τὸ θέατρον Ἀφροδίτης ἐστὶν ἱερόν, ἔμπροσθεν δὲ τοῦ ἕδους Τελέσιλλα ἡ ποιήσασα τὰ ᾁσματα ἐπείργασται στήλῃ: καὶ βιβλία μὲν ἐκεῖνα ἔρριπταί οἱ πρὸς τοῖς ποσίν, αὐτὴ δὲ ἐς κράνος ὁρᾷ κατέχουσα τῇ χειρὶ καὶ ἐπιτίθεσθαι τῇ κεφαλῇ μέλλουσα. ἦν δὲ ἡ Τελέσιλλα καὶ ἄλλως ἐν ταῖς γυναιξὶν εὐδόκιμος καὶ μᾶλλον ἐτιμᾶτο ἔτι ἐπὶ τῇ ποιήσει. συμβάντος δὲ Ἀργείοις ἀτυχῆσαι λόγου μειζόνως πρὸς Κλεομένην τὸν Ἀναξανδρίδου καὶ Λακεδαιμονίους, καὶ τῶν μὲν ἐν αὐτῇ πεπτωκότων τῇ μάχῃ, ὅσοι δὲ ἐς τὸ ἄλσος τοῦ Ἄργου κατέφευγον διαφθαρέντων καὶ τούτων, τὰ μὲν πρῶτα ἐξιόντων κατὰ ὁμολογίαν, ὡς δὲ ἔγνωσαν ἀπατώμενοι συγκατακαυθέντων τῷ ἄλσει τῶν λοιπῶν, οὕτω τοὺς Λακεδαιμονίους Κλεομένης ἦγεν ἐπὶ ἔρημον ἀνδρῶν τὸ Ἄργος. [9] Τελέσιλλα δὲ οἰκέτας μὲν καὶ ὅσοι διὰ νεότητα ἢ γῆρας ὅπλα ἀδύνατοι φέρειν ἦσαν, τούτους μὲν πάντας ἀνεβίβασεν ἐπὶ τὸ τεῖχος, αὐτὴ δὲ ὁπόσα ἐν ταῖς οἰκίαις ὑπελείπετο καὶ τὰ ἐκ τῶν ἱερῶν ὅπλα ἀθροίσασα τὰς ἀκμαζούσας ἡλικίᾳ τῶν γυναικῶν ὥπλιζεν, ὁπλίσασα δὲ ἔτασσε κατὰ τοῦτο ᾗ τοὺς πολεμίους προσιόντας ἠπίστατο. ὡς δὲ ἐγγὺς ἐγίνοντο οἱ Λακεδαιμόνιοι καὶ αἱ γυναῖκες οὔτε τῷ ἀλαλαγμῷ κατεπλάγησαν δεξάμεναί τε ἐμάχοντο ἐρρωμένως, ἐνταῦθα οἱ Λακεδαιμόνιοι, φρονήσαντες ὡς καὶ διαφθείρασί σφισι τὰς γυναῖκας ἐπιφθόνως τὸ κατόρθωμα ἕξει καὶ σφαλεῖσι μετὰ ὀνειδῶν γενήσοιτο ἡ συμφορά, ὑπείκουσι ταῖς γυναιξί. 

--Pausanias, Descriptio Graeciae, II.xx.8-9; Translated into Latin by Romulus Amaseus (1696)

By the theater is a shrine to Venus, and in front of that is a column that depicts the poet Telesilla. [In the portrait,] there are books of her poetry at her feet; she is staring at a helmet in her hands as she is about to put it on. Telesilla was a famous woman revered for her poetry. There was a time when the Argives were overcome by a loss of unimaginable magnitude by Anaxandrides’ son Cleomenes and his Lacedaemonian troops. Some Argives fell in battle; the remaining retreated to a glade in Argos. Of these, some were killed as they surrendered under the premise of negotiating peace; when the others recognized that they had been betrayed, they set the glade on fire and burned themselves to death. Cleomenes then marched his Lacedaemonian troops against the now defenseless Argos.

Telesilla assembled along the city walls the slaves and citizens too old or too young to bear arms, and armed them with weapons from their homes and from the temples. She also armed the strongest of the women, and stationed them where she reckoned the Lacedaemonians would attack. These women held their own against the Lacedaemonians and fought bravely against them; the Lacedaemonians, thinking that a victory against women would be shameful, and a loss against women would be even more so, retreated. 

PAUSANIAS

MAP:

Name:  Pausanias

Date:  110 – 180 CE

Works:  Description of Greece

 

REGION  5

Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans


BIO:

Timeline:

 Pausanias was a Greek writer who lived during the era of the “Five Good Emperors.” His work, the Description of Greece, is an important source for geographical, historical, archaeological, and cultural information about ancient Greece.

 ROMAN GREEK

ARCHAIC: (through 6th c. BCE); GOLDEN AGE: (5th - 4th c. BCE); HELLENISTIC: (4th c. BCE - 1st c. BCE); ROMAN: (1st c. BCE - 4th c. CE); POST CONSTANTINOPLE: (4th c. CE - 8th c. CE); BYZANTINE: (post 8th c CE)



Friday, July 23, 2021

Outed and Executed: The Tragic tale of Daphne and Leucippos, Pausanias VIII.xx.1-4

 TRIGGER WARNING: transphobia, murder

Unlike the neutral version of this story by Parthenius of Nicaea, the author's bias is evident in this version of the myth.

Ladon quidem ipse aquae pulchritudine omnibus Graeciae fluminibus antecellit: celebratur vero maxime Daphnes causa, & ob ea quae de illa poeta decantarunt. Ego sane de Daphne quae commemorant Syri Orontis accolae, praetereo. nam longe diversa ab Arcadibus & Eleis tradita sunt. Oenomao narrant Pisae regi filium fuisse Leucippum nomine, qui puellae amore captus, quum eam si uxorem sibi palam peteret, operam se lusurum pro  certo haberet, quod illa omnino a marum consuetudine abhorrebat, ad ea fallenda huiusmodi excogitasse astum dicitur. Alebat adolescens Alpheo comam: eam ille quum, quo virgines more solent, religassent, cum muliebri veste ad Daphnen venit, filiam se Oenomai simulans, quae socia venationis esse cuperet. quum itaque virgo esse ex corporis habitu facile crederetur, anteiret vero ceteras comites generis dignitate, ac venandi peritia, & in primis obsequentem se illis maxime praeberet, miro sibi Daphnen amore devinxit. At qui de Apollinis amore fabulam vulgarunt, hoc amplius addunt: Apollinem graviter ferentem Leucippi in amore felicitatem, effecisse ut Daphne cum suo comitatu virginum natandi causa in Ladonem descendens, ipsum etiam Leucippum recusantem & invitum illuc pertraheret: ac mox veste detracta, quum virginis ementitum habitum deprehendissent, impetu facto ipsae Daphnes comites illu iaculis & pugiunculis transfixum interemerint. Haec in vulgus de Daphne prodita.

ὁ δὲ Λάδων ποταμῶν τῶν ἐν Ἑλλάδι ὕδωρ παρέχεται κάλλιστον, ἔχει δὲ καὶ ἄλλως ἐς ἀνθρώπους φήμην Δάφνης τε εἵνεκα καὶ †τὰ ᾀδόμενα ἐς τὴν Δάφνην. [2] τοῦ λόγου δὲ τοῦ ἐς Δάφνην τὰ μὲν Σύροις τοῖς οἰκοῦσιν ἐπὶ Ὀρόντῃ ποταμῷ παρίημι, λέγεται δὲ καὶ ἄλλα τοιάδε ὑπὸ Ἀρκάδων καὶ Ἠλείων. Οἰνομάῳ τῷ δυναστεύσαντι ἐν Πίσῃ Λεύκιππος ἦν υἱός. οὗτος ἐρασθεὶς Δάφνης ὁ Λεύκιππος ἐκ μὲν τοῦ εὐθέος μνώμενος γυναῖκα ἕξειν ἀπεγίνωσκεν αὐτὴν ἅτε ἅπαν τὸ ἄρσεν γένος φεύγουσαν: παρέστη δέ οἱ τοιόνδε ἐς αὐτὴν σόφισμα. [3] ἔτρεφεν ὁ Λεύκιππος κόμην τῷ Ἀλφειῷ: ταύτην οἷα δὴ παρθένος πλεξάμενος τὴν κόμην καὶ ἐσθῆτα ἐνδὺς γυναικείαν ἀφίκετο ὡς τὴν Δάφνην, ἐλθὼν δὲ Οἰνομάου τε ἔλεγεν εἶναι θυγάτηρ καὶ ὡς συνθηρᾶν ἐθέλοι τῇ Δάφνῃ. ἅτε δὲ εἶναι παρθένος νομιζόμενος, καὶ τὰς ἄλλας ὑπερβεβλημένος παρθένους γένους τε ἀξιώματι καὶ σοφίᾳ τῇ ἐς τὰ κυνηγέσια, πρὸς δὲ καὶ τῇ θεραπείᾳ περισσῇ χρώμενος, ἐς φιλίαν ἰσχυρὰν ἐπάγεται τὴν Δάφνην. [4] οἱ δὲ τὸν Ἀπόλλωνος ἔρωτα ἐς αὐτὴν ᾁδοντες καὶ τάδε ἐπιλέγουσιν, Ἀπόλλωνα Λευκίππῳ νεμεσῆσαι τῆς ἐς τὸν ἔρωτα εὐδαιμονίας. αὐτίκα δὲ ἐπεθύμησεν ἐν τῷ Λάδωνι ἡ Δάφνη καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ παρθένοι νήχεσθαι, καὶ τὸν Λεύκιππον ἀποδύουσιν ἄκοντα: ἰδοῦσαι δὲ οὐ παρθένον τοῖς τε ἀκοντίοις αὐτὸν καὶ ἐγχειριδίοις τύπτουσαι διέφθειραν.

--Pausanias,Descriptio Graeciae VIII.xx.1-4; Translated into Latin by Romulus Amaseus (1696) 


The Ladon River is the foremost in beauty of all the rivers in Greece, and it is famous because of the myth of Daphne. I won’t mention the version that the Syrians inhabitants of the Orontes River tell, but instead I’ll stick to the Arcadian and Elian version of the myth. They say that Oenomaus, the prince of Pisa, had a son named Leucippus. Leucippus was in love with Daphne, but could not woo her outright, as she avoided men, so he constructed a plan.  Leucippus was growing his hair long in order to sacrifice it to the river god Alpheus, so he styled it like a girl would, put on women’s clothes, and introduced herself to Daphne. She told her she was Oenomaus’ daughter, and that she wished to accompany Daphne on a hunt. Leucippus was accepted as a girl, and surpassed Daphne’s other companions in nobility and hunting skill, was the most caring of her friends, and so she shared a deep friendship (φιλία) with Daphne.

Those who tell the story of Apollo’s love for Daphne add this to the tale: that Apollo grew jealous of Leucippus’ love for Daphne and their happiness together. He plotted to make Daphne and her companions come to the Ladon to bathe, and forced Leucippus to take off her clothes and join them. When her clothes were taken from her, they saw that she was not a girl, so they killed her with javelins and daggers.

PAUSANIAS

MAP:

Name:  Pausanias

Date:  110 – 180 CE

Works:  Description of Greece

 

REGION  5

Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans


BIO:

Timeline:

 Pausanias was a Greek writer who lived during the era of the “Five Good Emperors.” His work, the Description of Greece, is an important source for geographical, historical, archaeological, and cultural information about ancient Greece.

 ROMAN GREEK

ARCHAIC: (through 6th c. BCE); GOLDEN AGE: (5th - 4th c. BCE); HELLENISTIC: (4th c. BCE - 1st c. BCE); ROMAN: (1st c. BCE - 4th c. CE); POST CONSTANTINOPLE: (4th c. CE - 8th c. CE); BYZANTINE: (post 8th c CE)