Sunday, April 14, 2024

Friends Till The End: Martial 1.93

Roman men often had deep, loving and affectionate friendships with their peers. There was no shame or stigma in expressing love and support to one another.

Fabricio iunctus fido requiescit Aquinus,

qui prior Elysias gaudet adisse domos.

Ara duplex primi testatur munera pili:

plus tamen est, titulo quod breviore legis:

"iunctus uterque sacro laudatae foedere vitae,

famaque quod raro novit: amicus erat." 

--Martial, Epigrams 1.93 

Aquinus is buried next to his faithful Fabricius,

Who happily entered Heaven before him.

A double tombstone attests that both attained primus pilus [head centurion]

But, what’s more, is the inscription:

“Both are joined in a sacred relationship of a blessed life,

And something even more blessed: they were friends.”

 

MARTIAL

MAP:

Name: Marcus Valerius Martialis

Date:  40 CE – 104 CE

Works:  Epigrammaton Libri XV*

               De Spectaculis

 

REGION  2 (Hispania)

Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Northern Africa, including Carthage; Region 4: Egypt and the Middle East; Region 5: Peninsular Greece and the coast of Turkey


 

BIO:

Timeline:

Originally from Bilbilis, Hispania, the poet Martial moved to Rome in the 60s CE to advance his career. His two extant works include de Spectaculis, a collection of poems written to commemorate the opening of the Colosseum, and a fifteen volume collection of epigrams. These epigrams provide valuable insight into the mores and private lives of men and women from all of the city’s social classes.     

 SILVER AGE ROME

Silver Age: 18 - 150 CE


 


Sunday, April 7, 2024

W/W: Remember Me, Delicate Rose: A Medieval Love Poem

G unicae suae rosae

A vinculum dilectionis preciosae.

Quae est fortitudo mea, ut sustineam,

ut in tuo discessu pacientiam habeam?

Numqud fortitudo mea fortitudo est lapidum,

ut tuum esspectem reditum?

Quae nocte et die non cesso dolere,

velut qui caret manu et pede.

Omne quod iocundum est et delectabile

absque te habetur ut lutum pedum calcabile,

pro gaudere duco fletus

numquam animus meus apparet laetus.

Dum recordor quae dedisti oscula,

et quam iocundis verbis refrigerasti pectuscula,

mori libet

quod te videre non licet.

quid faciam miserrima?

quo me vertam paurperrima?

o si corpus meum terrae fuisset creditum

usque ad optatum tuum reditum,

aut si translatio mihi occederet Abaccuc

ut semel venissem illluc,

ut vultum amantis inspexissem,

et tunc non curarem si ipsa hora mortua fuissem!

nam in mundo non est nata

quae tam amabilis sit et grata,

et quae sine simulatione

tam intima me diligat dilectione.

unde sine fine non cesso dolere

donec te merear videre.

revera iuxta quendam sapientem magna miseria est hominis,

cum illo non esse

sine quo non potest esse.

dum constat orbis

numquam deleberis de medio mei cordis.

quid multis moror?

redi, dulcis amor!

noli iter tuum longius differe,

scias me absentiam tuam diutius non posse suffere.

vale,

meique memorare. 


--[quoted in] Dronke, Peter. Medieval Latin and the Rise of European Love Lyric, Vol  2.479; and Piechl,Helmut and Bergmann, Werner. Die Tegernseer Briefsammlung des 12. Jahrhunderts, p. 356


To her unique rose G,

From A, the bond of precious love.

How can I be strong enough

To endure your leaving?

Isn’t my strength the strength of stone

To wait for your return?

Night and day, I can’t stop grieving

When you’re gone, it feels like I’ve lost a hand and a foot.

When you’re gone, everything that is pleasant and delightful

Is like mud trod upon by my foot.

I turn to weeping instead of joy,

My heart is never happy.

When I recall the kisses you’ve given me,

And how you restored my heart with your happy words,

I’d rather die

Than not see you again.

What will wretched ol’ me do?

Where will poor li’l ol’ me turn?

If only my body were laid to earth

Until your longed-for return occurs,

Or if I could make a trip like Habakkuk

To go where you are,

To see the face of my lover—just once!--

I’d be content to die right then and there.

For no other woman was born in the universe

Who is so lovely and pleasant

Without any fake or pretend aspects

Who loves me with such deep intimacy.

 So I’ll never stop grieving

Until I’m worthy of seeing you again.

According to a certain Wise One,

Mankind’s great Sorrow is to be kept from

The one person you cannot live without.

As long as the world still stands

You will never be taken from the bottom of my heart.

Why do I delay any further?

Return,  sweet love!

Don’t put off your travels any longer,

Remember that I cannot endure your absence any longer,

Goodbye,

Remember me.

 

 

Thursday, April 4, 2024

W/W: Sweeter Than Honey: A Medieval Love Letter

C super mel et favum dulciori

B. quidquid amor amori.

O unica et specialis,

cur tamdiu in longinquo moraris?

Cur unicam tuam perire vis,

quae anima et corpore te diligit, ut ipsa scis?

et quea more aviculi esurientis

te suspirat omnibus horis atque momentis.

ex quo enim dulcissima tua presentia contigit me carere

nolui hominem ulterius audire nec videre

sed quasi tutur, perdito masculo

semper in arido residet ramusculo

ita lamentor sine fine

donec iterum fruar tua fide.

circumpspicio et non invenio amantem

ne in uno verbo me consolantem

dum enim iocundissime

allocutionis ac visionis tuae

dulcedinem revolvo in animo

dolore comprimor nimio

nam nil invenio tale.

Quid velim tuae dilectioni comparare,

Quae super mel at favum dulcescit

Et in cuius comparatione auri et argenti nitor vilescit?

quid ultra? in te omnis suavitas et virtus:

idcirco de absentia tua meus semper languet sipirtus.

omnis perfide cares felle

dulcior es lacte et melle

electa es ex milibus

te diligo prae omnibus

tu sola amor et desiderium

tu dulce animi mei refrigerium

nil mihi absque te iocundi.

omne quod tecum erat mihi suave

sine te laboriosum est et grave.

unde dicere volo veraciter

si fieri posset quod vitae pretio te emerem--non segniter.

quia sola es quam elegi secundum cor meum.

idcirco semper obsecro Deum

ne prius me mors preveniat amara

quam visione tua fruar optata et care.

vale

quae sunt omnia fidei et dilectionis de me habe.

quem transmitto accipe stilum

et adhuc animum meum fidum.


--[quoted in] Dronke, Peter. Medieval Latin and the Rise of European Love Lyric, Vol  2.478; and Piechl,Helmut and Bergmann, Werner. Die Tegernseer Briefsammlung des 12. Jahrhunderts, p. 354.


To C, beyond sweeter than honey and honeycomb

From B, whatever love means to a lover.

O unique and special girl,

Why do you stay so far away, and for so long?

Why do you wish for your one & only love to perish,

Who loves you (as you already know) body & soul?

Who longs for you, like a parched little bird

Hopes for you at all hours?

From the moment when I was apart from your sweetest presence

I didn’t want to see or hear another person,

But instead, like a turtledove, when its mate was dead,

Remains perched forever upon a barren branch.

Like this sad little bird, I’ll lament without end

Until once more I can enjoy your company.

I look around, and cannot find my lover

Or any word of consolation.

Instead, I happily run through my mind

The sweetness of your words and beauty,

Undone by my grief,

For I cannot find any such relief.

What can I compare to your love?

It is sweeter than honey and honeycomb,

Even gold and silver is dull in comparison!

Why go on?

In you, is every sweetness and kindness,

And so my spirit wanes in your absence.

You lack even an ounce of the bitterness of infidelity,

You are sweeter than milk and honey.

You are the one I’ve chosen out of thousands of others—

I love you more than everyone!

You alone are my love and my desire

You are the sweet refuge of my soul,

I find no enjoyment in anything else without you.

Everything that is sweet for me by your side

Is tedious and terrible without you here.

And so I want to tell you candidly,

If it were possible for me to afford a life by your side, I wouldn’t hesitate to do so.

Because you alone are the woman I chose in my heart.

And so, I pray to God,

May bitter death not take me away

Before I may enjoy looking at you,

My beloved and dearest one.

Goodbye,

Hold dear the faith and love I bear you,

And accept these words which I write to you,

As well as my still-loyal heart.

 

 

 

 


Sunday, March 17, 2024

M/M: I Miss You, Buddy: Ausonius to Paulinus 1.16-19

In a letter to Paulinus, Ausonius complains about his absence by comparing their relationship to other great relationships of mythology:

Impie, Pirithoo disiungere Thesea posses,

Euryalumque suo socium secernere Niso!

Te suadente fugam, Pylades liquisset Orestem,

Nec custodisset Siculus vadimonia Damon!


--Ausonius, Ep. Ausonius Paulino 1.16-19

Faithless one! You’d really break up Pirithous and Theseus?

Separate Euryalus from his Nisus?

You’d convince Pylades to abandon Orestes?

And keep the Sicilian Damon from pledging for Pythias’ escape?






AUSONIUS

MAP:

Name:  Decimius Magnus Ausonius

Date:  4th century CE

Works:  Letters, Mosella

 

REGION  2

Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans


BIO:

Timeline:

 Ausonius was a Roman poet from Aquitania, Gaul [modern France] who lived during the 4th century CE. He is best known for his epic poem Mosella, which describes the Moselle River, and his Epistles, a series of literary poems between himself and the Christian poet Paulinus.

 AGE OF CONFLICT

Early Roman Lit: through 2nd c BCE: Republican Rome: through 1st c. BCE; Golden Age: 70 BCE to 18 CE; Silver Age: 18 CE to 150 CE; Age of Conflict: 150 CE - 410 CE; Byzantine and Late Latin: after 410 CE


 


Friday, March 8, 2024

Saying Farewell to a Friend: Anth. Lat. 445

Roman men often had deep, loving and affectionate friendships with their peers. There was no shame or stigma in expressing love and support to one another.

 

Ablatus mihi Crispus est, amici

pro quo si pretium dari liceret

nostros dividerem libenter annos.

Nunc pars optima me mei reliquit

Crispus, praesidium meum, voluptas,

pectus, deliciae: nihil sine illo

laetum mens mea iam putabit esse.

Consumptus male debilisque vivam:

plus quam dimidium mei recessit.

 

--Anthologia Latina 445


Friends, my Crispus was taken away from me

If I could give anything to bring him back

I would gladly give half of my life.

Now the best part of me has abandoned me.

Crispus, you were my support, my joy,

My heart, my delight:  

Without him, my mind cannot find anything enjoyable.

I will spend the rest of my life worn out and defeated

Since more than half of me has gone.



Tuesday, March 5, 2024

M/M: A Medieval version of the Hyacinthus myth, Hildebert of Levardin XIV

et deus et medicus et amans, rescindere frustra

tentans Aebalidae funera, Phoebus ait;

"parcite, di, puero, si non moriatur uterque;

malo sequi puerum quam superesse deum.

Si prohibetis et hoc, sit pars utriusque superstes,

par cadit, ignoscens sic minor esse deo.

Quisque feret laetus propriae dispendia partis,

dum pars ad manes, pars est ad superos."

--Hildebart of Levardin #IV, Phoebus de Interitu Hyacinthi

 

Phoebus, being

A god

A healer

And a lover,

Trying in vain to stop Hyacinth from dying, said,

“Gods, please spare my boyfriend!

If we cannot both die,

I’d rather follow him in death

Than remain living as a god.

If you won’t allow this,

Let part of both of us remain together

And part of us die together,

And I will come to terms with losing my godhood.

Both of us will happily adjust to losing part of ourselves,

While part of us falls to the underworld together,

The other part of us flying hand-in-hands to the stars.”

 


Friday, February 16, 2024

Caeneus in the Underworld: Aeneid 6.440-449

nec procul hinc partem fusi monstrantur in omnem  

Lugentes campi; sic illos nomine dicunt.

hic quos durus amor crudeli tabe peredit

secreti celant calles et myrtea circum

silva tegit; curae non ipsa in morte relinquunt.

his Phaedram Procrinque locis maestamque Eriphylen  

crudelis nati monstrantem vulnera cernit,

Evadnenque et Pasiphaen; his Laodamia

it comes et iuvenis quondam, nunc femina, Caeneus

rursus et in veterem fato revoluta figuram.

--Vergil, Aeneid 6.440-449



Not far from here, spread out all around in every direction were the Mourning Fields; that’s what they’re called. This is where people affected by cursed love waste away. They hide in the narrow foot paths covered in a myrtle forest; even death itself cannot remove their pain. This is where he sees Phaedra, Procris, sad Eriphylis who bears the wounds of her cruel son, as well as Evandne and Pasiphae. Laodamia wanders here as companion to Caeneus—he had been a young man, but now returned by Fate to his previous shape as a woman.


NOTES:

·        Phaedra was cursed by Aphrodite to fall in love with her stepson Hippolytus

·        Procris, afraid her husband was unfaithful to her, followed him while he went out hunting and was accidentally killed by him.

·        Eriphylis betrayed her husband’s whereabouts while he was hiding during the Theban War and was swallowed by the earth

·        Evadne loved her husband so much that she threw herself on her husband’s funeral pyre

·        Pasiphae was cursed by Poseidon to fall in love with a bull after her husband Minos refused to offer him appropriate sacrifices

·        Laodamia loved her husband Protesilaus so much that she threw herself on his funeral pyre

·        What is Caeneus’ durus amor? Is it being the target of Poseidon’s attention and subsequent attack? Although Caeneus has a son (Coronus), there is no mention in extant myths about any love interest / marriage.

 

VERGIL / VIRGIL

MAP:

Name:  Publius Vergilius Maro

Date:  70 BCE – 21 BCE

Works:  Aeneid*

              Eclogues

             Georgics

 

REGION  1

Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans


BIO:

Timeline:

Vergil was born in Mantua (Cisalpine Gaul, located in northern Italy) and lived during the tumultuous transition of Roman government from republic to monarchy. His masterpiece, the Aeneid, tells the story of Aeneas’ migration from Troy to Italy; it was used for centuries as the pinnacle of Roman literature.

 GOLDEN AGE ROME

Early Roman Lit: through 2nd c BCE: Republican Rome: through 1st c. BCE; Golden Age: 70 BCE to 18 CE; Silver Age: 18 CE to 150 CE; Age of Conflict: 150 CE - 410 CE; Byzantine and Late Latin: after 410 CE