Saturday, May 15, 2021

A Victim Caught in the Middle: Hippolytus, Greek Anthology 9.132

 Modestia et Amor obviam sibi-invicem

progressi vitas perdiderunt ambo:

Phaedram quidem interfecit ardens amor Hippolyti:

Hippolytum vero casta interemit modestia.


σωφροσύνη καὶ Ἔρως κατεναντίον ἀλλήλοισιν

ἐλθόντες ψυχὰς ὤλεσαν ἀμφότερον:

Φαίδρην μὲν κτεῖνεν πυρόεις πόθος Ἱππολύτοιο:

Ἱππόλυτον δ᾽ ἁγνὴ πέφνε σαοφροσύνη:.


--Greek Anthology 9.132, Translated into Latin by Friedrich Duebner


When they met face-to-face,

Celibacy & Love

Destroyed two souls:

A burning desire for Hippolytus slew Phaedra;

But Hippolytus’ innocent chastity slew him.

<Anonymous>

MAP:

Name:  ????

Date: 

Works:  Greek Anthology; Anthologia Graeca; Florilegii Graecii

 

REGION  UNKNOWN

Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans


BIO:

Timeline:

 The Greek Anthology is a modern collection of Greek lyric poetry compiled from various sources over the course of Greco-Roman literature. The current collection was created from two major sources, one from the 10th century CE and one from the 14th century CE. The anthology contains authors spanning the entirety of Greek literature, from archaic poets to Byzantine Christian poets. 

 Byzantine Greek

ARCHAIC: (through 6th c. BCE); GOLDEN AGE: (5th - 4th c. BCE); HELLENISTIC: (4th c. BCE - 1st c. BCE); ROMAN: (1st c. BCE - 4th c. CE); POST CONSTANTINOPLE: (4th c. CE - 8th c. CE); BYZANTINE: (post 8th c CE)



Sunday, May 9, 2021

When I Find Myself In Times of Trouble... Ovid, Trist.1.5.17-34

 si tamen haec navis vento ferretur amico,

     ignoraretur forsitan ista fides.

Thesea Pirithous non tam sensisset amicum,

     si non infernas vivus adisset aquas.

ut foret exemplum veri Phoceus amoris,

     fecerunt furiae, tristis Oresta, tuae.

si non Euryalus Rutulos cecidisset in hostes,

     Hyrtacidae Nisi gloria nulla foret.

scilicet ut flavum spectatur in ignibus aurum,

     tempore sic duro est inspicienda fides.

dum iuvat et vultu ridet Fortuna sereno,

     indelibatas cuncta sequuntur opes:

at simul intonuit, fugiunt, nec noscitur ulli,

     agminibus comitum qui modo cinctus erat.

atque haec, exemplis quondam collecta priorum,

     nunc mihi sunt propriis cognita vera malis.

vix duo tresve mihi de tot superestis amici:

     cetera Fortunae, non mea turba fuit.

--Ovid, Tristia I.v.17-34


If my ship were sailing on a friendly wind,

Perhaps I could forget your loyalty.

For Pirithous would not have felt Theseus’ friendship

If he hadn’t gone on a quest to the Underworld.

If not for wretched Orestes’ madness,

Pylades would not be seen as a paragon of love

If Euryalus had not fallen in battle with the Rutulians,

Nisus would have no glory.

Just like gold bubbles up from the smelter’s furnace

Faith also must endure a tribulation.

Whenever Fortune smiles down upon us serenely

she blesses us with uninterrupted prosperity,

but as soon as she grows angry,

our good times flee, and instead of the bunch of friends we had

we can scarcely find one.

And although I used to ponder examples of this trope

Now this evil has befallen me, too.

Of all my “friends,” y’all are the two or three friends I have left.

The rest belong to Fortune’s clique, not mine.
 

OVID

MAP:

Name: Publius Ovidius Naso  

Date:  43 BCE – 18 CE

Works:  Ars Amatoria

               Metamorphoses*

              Tristia, etc.

 

REGION  1

Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans


BIO:

Timeline:

Ovid was one of the most famous love poets of Rome’s Golden Age. His most famous work, the Metamorphoses, provides a history of the world through a series of interwoven myths. Most of his poetry is erotic in nature; for this reason, he fell into trouble during the conservative social reforms under the reign of the emperor Augustus. In 8 CE he was banished to Bithynia, where he spent the remainder of his life pining for his native homeland.

 GOLDEN AGE ROME

 

Early Roman Lit: through 2nd c BCE: Republican Rome: through 1st c. BCE; Golden Age: 70 BCE to 18 CE; Silver Age: 18 CE to 150 CE; Age of Conflict: 150 CE - 410 CE; Byzantine and Late Latin: after 410 CE


Saturday, May 8, 2021

I Get By With a Little Help From My Friends: Ovid, Ex Ponto II.iii.41-49

While in exile, the poet Ovid reaches out for help: 

 Cerne quid Aeacides post mortem praestet amico:

     instar et hanc uitam mortis habere puta.

Pirithoum Theseus Stygias comitauit ad undas:

     a Stygia quantum mors mea distat aqua?

Adfuit insano iuuenis Phoceus Orestae: 

     et mea non minimum culpa furoris habet.

Tu quoque magnorum laudes admitte uirorum,

     ut facis, et lapso quam potes adfer opem.

--Ovid, Ex Ponto II.3.41-49

Consider how Achilles honored his “friend” Patroclus when he died, 

and remember that this life of mine is a living death!

Theseus accompanied Pirithous to the Underworld:

How far off is my death from the Stygian waves?

Pylades supported Orestes through his mental crisis,

My troubles have given me no less a crisis.

Maximus, accept the same praise that these heroes received,

And keep doing what you are doing,

helping me however you can while my life is in ruins.

OVID

MAP:

Name: Publius Ovidius Naso  

Date:  43 BCE – 18 CE

Works:  Ars Amatoria

               Metamorphoses*

              Tristia, etc.

 

REGION  1

Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans


BIO:

Timeline:

Ovid was one of the most famous love poets of Rome’s Golden Age. His most famous work, the Metamorphoses, provides a history of the world through a series of interwoven myths. Most of his poetry is erotic in nature; for this reason, he fell into trouble during the conservative social reforms under the reign of the emperor Augustus. In 8 CE he was banished to Bithynia, where he spent the remainder of his life pining for his native homeland.

 GOLDEN AGE ROME

Early Roman Lit: through 2nd c BCE: Republican Rome: through 1st c. BCE; Golden Age: 70 BCE to 18 CE; Silver Age: 18 CE to 150 CE; Age of Conflict: 150 CE - 410 CE; Byzantine and Late Latin: after 410 CE


 


The Double Standard: Aulus Gellius, Attic Nights x.xxiii.1-5

 Trigger Warning: discrimination, execution

XXIII. Verba ex oratione M. Catonis de mulierum veterum victu et moribus; atque inibi, quod fuerit ius marito in adulterio uxorem deprehensam necare. I. Qui de victu atque cultu populi Romani scripserunt, mulieres Romae atque in Latio aetatem abstemias egisse, hoc est vino semper, quod "temetum" prisca lingua appellabatur, abstinuisse dicunt, institutumque ut cognatis osculum ferrent deprehendendi causa, ut odor indicium faceret, si bibissent. II. Bibere autem solitas ferunt loream, passum, murrinam et quae id genus sapiant potu dulcia. Atque haec quidem in his, quibus dixi, libris pervulgata sunt; III. sed Marcus Cato non solum existimatas, set et multatas quoque a iudice mulieres refert non minus, si vinum in se, quam si probrum et adulterium admisissent. IV. Verba Marci Catonis adscripsi ex oratione, quae inscribitur de dote, in qua id quoque scriptum est in adulterio uxores deprehensas ius fuisse maritis necare: "Vir" inquit "cum divortium fecit, mulieri iudex pro censore est, imperium, quod videtur, habet, si quid perverse taetreque factum est a muliere; multatur, si vinum bibit; si cum alieno viro probri quid fecit, condemnatur." V. De iure autem occidendi ita scriptum: "In adulterio uxorem tuam si prehendisses, sine iudicio inpune necares; illa te, si adulterares sive tu adulterarere, digito non auderet contingere, neque ius est."

 --Aulus Gellius, Noctes Atticae, x.xxiii.1-5


An excerpt of Marcus Cato’s speech about traditional gender norms of women, which mentions the right for a husband to kill his wife caught in adultery.

1. Those who write about customs and norms of the Romans say that women both in Rome and Latium lived their lives in sobriety, always abstaining from wine (which in the olden days was called “moonshine*”).  Furthermore, women were conditioned to kiss their relatives, so that the menfolk could catch them if they were drinking, by smelling the alcohol on their breath.

2. They say that women were accustomed to drink sweet drinks—ice wine, grape juice, second-pressed [diluted] wine. And you can read more about this in the books I’ve already mentioned.

3. But Marcus Cato declared that women were not only convicted but also punished by a magistrate if they were drunk—and punished at the same level as adultery (even more so!)

4. I’m quoting a passage of Marcus Cato from his speech “About Dowries,” where he wrote that husbands had the right to kill their wives caught in adultery:

“When a husband divorces his wife, he acts as the woman’s judge and magistrate, and has the authority as he sees fit, to condemn his wife if she has done a shameful or offensive act. She is punished severely if she drinks wine; if she does something shameful with another man, she is condemned to death.

5. And Cato writes this about the husband’s right to put his wife to death:

“If you have caught your wife in adultery, you may kill her with impunity, without a trial; but whether you commit adultery with a woman (adulterares) or a man (adulterarere), your wife cannot lay a finger on you, nor does she have the right.”


*using an archaism here to reflect the archaism in the text


CATO THE ELDER

MAP:

Name:  Marcus Portius Cato

Date:  234-149 BCE

Works:  

[Many works, now lost]

REGION  1

Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans


BIO:

Timeline:

 Famous for his line “Delenda est Karthago,” Cato the Elder is an Italian-born Roman statesman who vociferously touted conservative and xenophobic values throughout his political and literary career.

 Early Roman Republic

Early Roman Lit: through 2nd c BCE: Republican Rome: through 1st c. BCE; Golden Age: 70 BCE to 18 CE; Silver Age: 18 CE to 150 CE; Age of Conflict: 150 CE - 410 CE; Byzantine and Late Latin: after 410 CE



AULUS GELLIUS

MAP:

Name:  Aulus Gellius

Date:  2nd. c. CE

Works:  Attic Nights

 

REGION  UNKNOWN

Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans


BIO:

Timeline:

 Aulus Gellius lived during the 2nd century CE. His work, the Attic Nights, are a collection of anecdotes about literature, history, and grammar.  From internal evidence, we can deduce that he was in the Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius’ social circle, having close friendships with Herodes Atticus and Fronto.

 SILVER AGE LATIN

 

Early Roman Lit: through 2nd c BCE: Republican Rome: through 1st c. BCE; Golden Age: 70 BCE to 18 CE; Silver Age: 18 CE to 150 CE; Age of Conflict: 150 CE - 410 CE; Byzantine and Late Latin: after 410 CE



An Offering and A Poem: Nossis, Greek Anthology 6.265

 Juno veneranda, Lacinium quae thure-fragrans

saepe coelitus deveniens aspicis,

accipe byssinam vestem, quam tibi cum filia praeclara

Nosside texuit Theophilis, gnata Cleochae.

 

Ἥρα τιμήεσσα, Λακίνιον ἃ τὸ θυῶδες

πολλάκις οὐρανόθεν νεισομένα καθορῇς,

δέξαι βύσσινον εἷμα, τό τοι μετὰ παιδὸς ἀγαυᾶς

Νοσσίδος ὕφανεν Θευφιλὶς ἁ Κλεόχας. 

--Nossis, Greek Anthology vi.265; Translated into Latin by Friedrich Duebner

O sacred Juno,

who often descends from heaven

to mingle with us in sweet-smelling Laconia, accept this linen cloak

Woven by Cleocha’s daughter Theophilis,

Along with her famous daughter Nossis.

NOSSIS

MAP:

Name:  Nossis

Date:  3rd c. BCE

Works:  [fragments]

 

REGION  1

Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans


BIO:

Timeline:

 Nossis was considered among the famous nine women poets of ancient Greek literature. She lived in Locris (southern Italy) during the 3rd century. Several of her poems are preserved in the Greek Anthology; like that of her literary predecessor Sappho, Nossis’ poetry provides great insight into the lives of women in the ancient world.

 HELLENISTIC GREEK LITERATURE

ARCHAIC: (through 6th c. BCE); GOLDEN AGE: (5th - 4th c. BCE); HELLENISTIC: (4th c. BCE - 1st c. BCE); ROMAN: (1st c. BCE - 4th c. CE); POST CONSTANTINOPLE: (4th c. CE - 8th c. CE); BYZANTINE: (post 8th c CE)



<Anonymous>

MAP:

Name:  ????

Date: 

Works:  Greek Anthology; Anthologia Graeca; Florilegii Graecii

 

REGION  UNKNOWN

Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans


BIO:

Timeline:

 The Greek Anthology is a modern collection of Greek lyric poetry compiled from various sources over the course of Greco-Roman literature. The current collection was created from two major sources, one from the 10th century CE and one from the 14th century CE. The anthology contains authors spanning the entirety of Greek literature, from archaic poets to Byzantine Christian poets. 

 Byzantine Greek

Captions for Greek Timeline:  ARCHAIC: (through 6th c. BCE); GOLDEN AGE: (5th - 4th c. BCE); HELLENISTIC: (4th c. BCE - 1st c. BCE); ROMAN: (1st c. BCE - 4th c. CE); POST CONSTANTINOPLE: (4th c. CE - 8th c. CE); BYZANTINE: (post 8th c CE)




Sunday, May 2, 2021

Best Friends with an Intersex Scholar: Favorinus & Herodes Atticus, (Philostratus, VS I.8.4)

TRIGGER WARNING: slavery

This passage is important for multiple conflicting reasons: it shows that it was possible for an intersex Roman to live a life of normalcy, even become a famous scholar, in the time of the late Roman empire; it highlights the depths of healthy, lifelong friendships that could exist between Roman men without stigma; and it shows the juxtaposition between loving friendship that Roman citizens shared and the brutality that their slaves had to endure. 

Familiaris admodum Herodi sophistae fuit, qui magistri ac parentis loco eum habuit, ad eumque scripsit, "quando te videbo et quando os tuum osculabor?" Quare moriens Herodem fecit heredem et librorum, quotquot possidebat, et aedium, quas Romae habebat, et [servi] Autolecythi.

 Ἐπιτηδειότατος μὲν οὖν Ἡρώδῃ τῷ σοφιστῇ ἐγένετο διδάσκαλόν τε ἡγουμένῳ καὶ πατέρα καὶ πρὸς αὐτὸν γράφοντι ‘πότε σε ἴδω καὶ πότε σου περιλείξω τὸ στόμα;’ ὅθεν καὶ τελευτῶν κληρονόμον Ἡρώδην ἀπέφηνε τῶν τε βιβλίων, ὁπόσα ἐκέκτητο, καὶ τῆς ἐπὶ τῇ Ῥώμῃ οἰκίας καὶ τοῦ Αὐτοληκύθου. 

--Philostratus, Vitae Sophistarum, I.8.4; translated into Latin by Antonius Westermann (1850)

Favorinus was very close with the sophist Herodes Atticus, who considered him a father-figure and mentor. He wrote to Herodes, “When will I see you and kiss your lips?” When he died, Favorinus made Herodes his heir and provided him all of the books in his possession, his home in Rome, as well as the slave Autolecythus.*


*The remainder of the passage explains that the slave Autolecythus was exploited for sexual purposes.


PHILOSTRATUS

MAP:

Name:  Lucius Flavius Philostratus

Date:  170 – 250 CE

Works: Lives of the Sophists

 

REGION  5

Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans


BIO:

Timeline:

 Philostratus was a Greek scholar who lived during the late 2nd and early 3rd century CE. He was a member of the imperial Roman social circle; one of his works, the Life of Apollonius of Tyana, he dedicates to the Roman empress Julia Domna.

 Age of Conflict

Early Roman Lit: through 2nd c BCE: Republican Rome: through 1st c. BCE; Golden Age: 70 BCE to 18 CE; Silver Age: 18 CE to 150 CE; Age of Conflict: 150 CE - 410 CE; Byzantine and Late Latin: after 410 CE


 



Intersex and Famous: Favorinus (Philostratus, VS 1.8.1-2)

Pariter et Favorinum philosophum eloquentia in sophistis clarum fecit. Erat enim ex Hesperiis Galatis ille, Arelate urbe, quae ad Rhodanum fluvium condita est. Natus est autem sexu ambiguo et androgynus, id quod et specie et voce apparebat; imberbis enim facie etiam senex erat et vox acute et acriter cum intentione sonabat, quales eunuchos solet formare natura. Tanta nihilo minus ardebat venerea cupidine, ut vel adulterii reus a viro consulari fieret. Ex controversia autem, quae ei cum imperatore Hadriano orta est, nihil cepit incommodi quare haec tria vitam suam admiranda habuisse dictabat, quod Gallus graece loquutus esset, quod eunuchus reus factus esset adulterii, quod cum imperatore contendens salvus evasisset. (2) Hoc autem Hadriano potius laudi fuerit habendum, quod imperator qui fuit tanquam aequalis cum eo concertarit, quem interficere licebat.

ὁμοίως καὶ Φαβωρῖνον τὸν φιλόσοφον ἡ εὐγλωττία ἐν σοφισταῖς ἐκήρυττεν. ἦν μὲν γὰρ τῶν ἑσπερίων Γαλατῶν οὗτος, Ἀρελάτου πόλεως, ἣ ἐπὶ Ἠριδανῷ ποταμῷ ᾤκισται, διφυὴς δὲ ἐτέχθη καὶ ἀνδρόθηλυς, καὶ τοῦτο ἐδηλοῦτο μὲν καὶ παρὰ τοῦ εἴδους, ἀγενείως γὰρ τοῦ προσώπου καὶ γηράσκων εἶχεν, ἐδηλοῦτο δὲ καὶ τῷ φθέγματι, ὀξυηχὲς γὰρ ἠκούετο καὶ λεπτὸν καὶ ἐπίτονον, ὥσπερ ἡ φύσις τοὺς εὐνούχους ἥρμοκεν. θερμὸς δὲ οὕτω τις ἦν τὰ ἐρωτικά, ὡς καὶ μοιχοῦ λαβεῖν αἰτίαν ἐξ ἀνδρὸς [p. 9] ὑπάτου.

διαφορᾶς δὲ αὐτῷ πρὸς Ἀδριανὸν βασιλέα γενομένης οὐδὲν ἔπαθεν. ὅθεν ὡς παράδοξα ἐπεχρησμῴδει τῷ ἑαυτοῦ βίῳ τρία ταῦτα: Γαλάτης ὢν ἑλληνίζειν, εὐνοῦχος ὢν μοιχείας κρίνεσθαι, βασιλεῖ διαφέρεσθαι καὶ ζῆν. τουτὶ δὲ Ἀδριανοῦ ἔπαινος εἴη ἂν μᾶλλον, εἰ βασιλεὺς ὢν ἀπὸ τοῦ ἴσου διεφέρετο πρὸς ὃν ἐξῆν ἀποκτεῖναι.


--Philostratus, Vitae Sophistarum I.8.1-2; translated into Latin by Antonius Westermann (1850)

Similarly, eloquence also made the philosopher Favorinus famous among the sophists. He was from the city of Arelate, which is situated on the Rhone river in western Gaul. He was born of ambiguous sex, and intersex, which was clear from his body type and his voice; he remained beardless even as an old man, and his voice was high-pitched, the same voice that eunuchs have. This didn’t stop him romantically, though; he was charged with adultery by a man of consular rank. He got into an argument with the emperor Hadrian, but didn’t suffer (lethal) consequences for it. And so, his life was one of three mysteries: he was a Gaul who spoke Greek; he was a eunuch charged with adultery; and he got into a fight with an emperor without dying. [This is more a praise of Hadrian’s virtue, since the emperor could have arguments with others, yet treat them as equals, even though he could put them to death for disagreeing with him.]

PHILOSTRATUS

MAP:

Name:  Lucius Flavius Philostratus

Date:  170 – 250 CE

Works: Lives of the Sophists

 

REGION  5

Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans


BIO:

Timeline:

 Philostratus was a Greek scholar who lived during the late 2nd and early 3rd century CE. He was a member of the imperial Roman social circle; one of his works, the Life of Apollonius of Tyana, he dedicates to the Roman empress Julia Domna.

 Age of Conflict

Early Roman Lit: through 2nd c BCE: Republican Rome: through 1st c. BCE; Golden Age: 70 BCE to 18 CE; Silver Age: 18 CE to 150 CE; Age of Conflict: 150 CE - 410 CE; Byzantine and Late Latin: after 410 CE