Saturday, August 13, 2022

Ace Allies, Assemble--for Rome! Claudian, Stilich. 3.237-274

Tibi, quae pariter silvis dominaris et astris,

exiguam Stilicho movit, Latonia, curam :

tu quoque nobilibus spectacula nostra laboras

inlustrare feris summoque in vertice rupis

Alpinae socias arcu cessante pudicas

et pharetratarum comitum inviolabile cogis

concilium, veniunt umcros et brachia nudae

armataeque manus iaculis et terga sagittis,

incomptae pulchraeque tamen ; sudoribus ora

pulverulenta rubent, sexum nec cruda fatetur

virginitas ; sine lege comae ; duo cingula vestem

crure tenus pendere vetant. praecedit amicas

flava Leontodame, sequitur nutrita Lycaeo

Nebrophone telisque domat quae Maenala Thero.

ignea Cretaea properat Britomartis ab Ida

et cursu Zephyris numquam cessura Lycaste.

iungunt se geminae metuenda feris Hecaerge

et soror, optatum numen venantibus, Opis

progenitae Scythia : divas nemorumque potentes

fecit Hyperboreis Delos praelata pruinis.

hae septem venere duces ; exercitus alter

Nympharum incedunt, acies formosa Dianae,

centum Taygeti, centum de vertice Cynthi

et totidem casto genuit quas flumine Ladon.

has ubi collectas vidit, sic Delia coepit :

‘ O sociae, mecum thalami quae iura perosae

virgineo gelidos percurritis agmine montes,

cernitis ut Latio superi communibus ornent

hunc annum studiis ? quantos Neptunus equorum

donet ab orbe greges ? laudi quod nulla canendae

fratris plectra vacent ? nostram quoque sentiat idem

quam meritis debemus opem. non spicula poscit

iste labor ; maneant clausis nunc sicca pharetris,

omnis et a solitis noster venatibus arcus

temperet ; in solam cruor hic servetur harenam.

retibus et clatris dilata morte tenendae

ducendaeque ferae, cupidas arcete sagittas ;

consulis in plausum casuris parcite monstris.

--Claudian, Stilicho III.237-274


Daughter of Latona [Diana],

Who lords over the forests and the stars with equal ease,

You care for Stilicho as well, by ensuring our Roman games are filled with noble beasts.

On the top of Alpine cliffs with bow in hand,

you assemble and hold a chaste [inviolabile] court

With your chaste [pudicas] companions.

All  of them are armed with quivers

With bare arms and bare shoulders,

Armed with spear in hand and quiver on their backs

Beautiful yet unadorned.

Their dusty faces gleam with sweat,

Showing off neither their maidenhood nor their gender.

Their hair is loose, two hempen cords gird their waists

And keep their legs free.

Blond Leontodame arrives first,

Nebrophone (raised on the Lycaean mountain) follows next

And Thero, who keeps the Arcadian territories in check with her mighty weapons.

Passionate Britomartis hastens over from Cretan Mt. Ida

And Lycaste, who can outrun the wind.

Scythian-born twins Hecaerge (the one feared by all beasts)

and her sister Opis, (The one to pray to when you’re hunting)

arrive side-by-side, by making their home in Delos

shunning the wild norths—made these twins powerful goddesses.

These seven leaders came, and following them was another army of nymphs,

Diana’s beautiful Valkyries.

A hundred of them were from Taygetus,

A hundred of them were from the peak of Mt. Cynthus,

A hundred nymphs born in the region of the chaste-flowing Ladon.

When they assembled together, Diana began her speech:

“O allies, you who follow me together

Who spurn the detested marriage bed,

Dwelling with me in the crisp mountain ranges,

Do you notice that the gods are all keeping an eye on Rome

How many herds of horses that Neptune has bestowed upon the world?

That my brother Apollo’s lyre never stops singing of Rome’s praise?

I feel that we ought to be doing the same.

We do not need our spears for this task,

Our arrows can remain unbloodied,

Our bows can cease from their accustomed hunting,

Blood should be preserved for the Roman games only.

Beasts should be brought in alive with nets & cages

(spare them from your fierce arrows!)

Save these creatures until their deaths can come

For an applauding audience.”


CLAUDIAN

MAP:

Name:  Claudius Claudianus

Date:  370 – 404 CE

Works: The Abduction of Proserpina

          On the Consulship of Stilicho

          Against Eutropius

REGION  4

Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans


BIO:

Timeline:

 Claudian was born in Alexandria, Egypt during the 4th century CE. He is one of the best poets of the time period, and he provides a unique perspective as a non-Christian writer in Christian Rome. Many of his works are still extant, including panegyric [official praise literature] for the Roman Emperor Honorius and his general Stilicho, a poem criticizing the eunuch consul Eutropius, and an epic retelling of the abduction of Persephone.

 AGE OF CONFLICT

Early Roman Lit: through 2nd c BCE: Republican Rome: through 1st c. BCE; Golden Age: 70 BCE to 18 CE; Silver Age: 18 CE to 150 CE; Age of Conflict: 150 CE - 410 CE; Byzantine and Late Latin: after 410 CE



Tuesday, August 9, 2022

Love Shakes Me to the Core: Sappho 47

 Ἔρος δ᾿ ἐτίναξέ μοι

φρένας, ὠς ἄνεμος κὰτ ὄρος δρύσιν ἐμπέτων.

Amor animum meum quatit, velut

ventus quercos in montis summo impulit.

--Sappho, fragment 47

Love shook my heart

the way the wind strikes the trees on the mountaintop.

SAPPHO

MAP:

Name:  Σαπφώ / Sappho

Date:  630 – 570 BCE

Works:  <lost: only fragments remain>

 

REGION  5

Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans


BIO:

Timeline:

Sappho was universally applauded by the ancient world as the “Tenth Muse.” Because she was one of the earliest Greek lyric poets, there is very little definitive information on Sappho’s life.  It is generally agreed that Sappho was a wealthy noblewoman from the island of Lesbos who had three brothers and a daughter named Kleis. She used her prominent social position to support a cohort of other women artists, and composed many poems about them, expressing her love for them, praising their beauty, and celebrating their marriages. Whereas earlier Greek poetry was epic poetry with serious themes of gods, warfare, and the state, Sappho’s lyric poetry is emotional, intimate and personal. Her poetry centers around womanhood and womanly love, providing rare insight into social mores of the time period. The modern term “lesbian” (a woman who is attracted to another woman) reveals the longevity of her impact upon western culture [NOTE: Although “lesbian” is the accepted term in modern English, authors in the ancient world used a different word for a homosexual woman, and only occasionally used the term “lesbian” euphemistically]. Unfortunately, although her poetry was universally revered by the Greeks and Romans alike, Sappho’s works only exist as fragments, adding mysterious allure to her larger-than-life status but unfortunately hindering our understanding of her life and thoughts.

 Archaic Greek

ARCHAIC: (through 6th c. BCE); GOLDEN AGE: (5th - 4th c. BCE); HELLENISTIC: (4th c. BCE - 1st c. BCE); ROMAN: (1st c. BCE - 4th c. CE); POST CONSTANTINOPLE: (4th c. CE - 8th c. CE); BYZANTINE: (post 8th c CE)



Neither the Honey Nor the Bee: Sappho 146

 μήτε μοι μέλι μήτε μέλισσα

Nec mihi mel nec apis

--Sappho, fragment 146; Translated into Latin by K. Masters

Neither the honey nor the bee for me!

SAPPHO

MAP:

Name:  Σαπφώ / Sappho

Date:  630 – 570 BCE

Works:  <lost: only fragments remain>

 

REGION  5

Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans

BIO:

Timeline:

Sappho was universally applauded by the ancient world as the “Tenth Muse.” Because she was one of the earliest Greek lyric poets, there is very little definitive information on Sappho’s life.  It is generally agreed that Sappho was a wealthy noblewoman from the island of Lesbos who had three brothers and a daughter named Kleis. She used her prominent social position to support a cohort of other women artists, and composed many poems about them, expressing her love for them, praising their beauty, and celebrating their marriages. Whereas earlier Greek poetry was epic poetry with serious themes of gods, warfare, and the state, Sappho’s lyric poetry is emotional, intimate and personal. Her poetry centers around womanhood and womanly love, providing rare insight into social mores of the time period. The modern term “lesbian” (a woman who is attracted to another woman) reveals the longevity of her impact upon western culture [NOTE: Although “lesbian” is the accepted term in modern English, authors in the ancient world used a different word for a homosexual woman, and only occasionally used the term “lesbian” euphemistically]. Unfortunately, although her poetry was universally revered by the Greeks and Romans alike, Sappho’s works only exist as fragments, adding mysterious allure to her larger-than-life status but unfortunately hindering our understanding of her life and thoughts.

 Archaic Greek

ARCHAIC: (through 6th c. BCE); GOLDEN AGE: (5th - 4th c. BCE); HELLENISTIC: (4th c. BCE - 1st c. BCE); ROMAN: (1st c. BCE - 4th c. CE); POST CONSTANTINOPLE: (4th c. CE - 8th c. CE); BYZANTINE: (post 8th c CE)



Wednesday, August 3, 2022

M/M: Winged Words: Julian's Letter to Eugenius, Ep. 60

Iulianus Eugenio Philosopho.

Daedalum narrant pennas Icario e cera finxisse, arteque naturam vincere tentasse: at ego illius quidem artem laudo, prudentiam tamen requiro: quippe cum solus ex omni memoria fit ausus cerae fluxae ac fragili salutem filii committere: ego tamen, si mihi esset integrum iuxta Teii illius lyrici votum, in avem mutari, non mehercule ad Olympum, neque ob amatorias aliquas querimonias, sed in ipsa montium vestrorum cacumina volarem, quo te meam (ut ait Sappho) curam amplecterer. Quoniam igitur natura me in hoc ergastulum corporis inclusit, neque in sublime verba mea explicare concedit, quibus possum alis te sequor, et scribo, et quo licet modo, tecum sum. Homerus certe non alia ex causa dixit verba alata, nisi quia omnem in partem ire possunt, ut velocissimae aves quocunque volunt, prosiliunt. Verumtamen tu quoque, amice, vicissim scribe. Name et tibi par est, vel maior in dicendo alarum copia, qua et amicos potes commovere, et varie, tamquam praesens esses, delectare.

Εὐγενίῳ φιλοσόφῳ

Δαίδαλον μὲν Ἰκάρῳ φασὶν ἐκ κηροῦ πτερὰ συμπλάσαντα τολμῆσαι τὴν φύσιν βιάσασθαι τῇ τέχνῃ. ἐγὼ δὲ ἐκεῖνον μὲν εἰ καὶ τῆς τέχνης ἐπαινῶ, τῆς γνώμης οὐκ ἄγαμαι: μόνος γὰρ κηρῷ λυσίμῳ τοῦ παιδὸς ὑπέμεινε τὴν σωτηρίαν πιστεῦσαι. εἰ δέ μοι θέμις ἦν κατὰ τὸν Τήιον ἐκεῖνον μελοποιὸν τὴν τῶν ὀρνίθων ἀλλάξασθαι φύσιν, οὐκ ἂν δήπου πρὸς Ὄλυμπον οὐδὲ ὑπὲρ μέμψεως ἐρωτικῆς, ἀλλ̓ εἰς αὐτοὺς ἂν τῶν ὑμετέρων ὀρῶν τοὺς πρόποδας ἔπτην, ἵνα σὲ τὸ μέλημα τοὐμόν, ὥς φησιν ἡ Σαπφώ, περιπτύξωμαι. ἐπεὶ δέ με ἀνθρωπίνου σώματος δεσμῷ κατακλείσασα ἡ φύσις οὐκ ἐθέλει πρὸς τὸ μετέωρον ἁπλῶσαι, τῶν λόγων οἷς ἔχω σε πτεροῖς μετέρχομαι, καὶ γράφω, καὶ σύνειμι τὸν δυνατὸν τρόπον. πάντως που καὶ Ὅμηρος αὐτοὺς οὐκ ἄλλου του χάριν ἢ τούτου πτερόεντας ὀνομάζει, διότι δύνανται πανταχοῦ φοιτᾶν, ὥσπερ οἱ ταχύτατοι τῶν ὀρνίθων ᾗ ἂν ἐθέλωσιν ᾄττοντες. γράφε δὲ καὶ αὐτός, ὦ φίλος: ἴση γὰρ δήπου σοι τῶν λόγων, εἰ μὴ καὶ μείζων, ὑπάρχει πτέρωσις, ᾗ τοὺς ἑταίρους μεταβῆναι δύνασαι καὶ πανταχόθεν ὡς παρὼν εὐφραίνειν.

--Julian, Ep. 60;Translated into Latin by Petrus Martinius Morentinus Navarrus (1583) [citing Sappho fragment 163]

To: Eugenius the Philosopher

From: Julian, Emperor of Rome

They say that Daedalos built wax wings for Icarus, daring to conquer Mother Nature with his talents. I praise his skill, but I question his wisdom, for he is the only person in human history who dared to entrust the safety of his son to soft wax. But if I could transform into a bird (as the poet Anacreon says), I wouldn’t fly to Olympus, not even to complain about Love. Instead, I would fly to the foot of your mountain, and embrace you, “my beloved” (as Sappho says). However, since Mother Nature has enclosed me in this human body, and it won’t let me lift off the ground, I can only fly to you and be with you the only way I can—in winged words. Homer knew what he was talking about when he called them “winged words,” for they flit about here and there like swift birds that swoop down wherever they want. Dear friend, write me back too! For your words are winged, too—even more so than mine—and can travel to your companions and cheer them up almost as if you’re here in person.

 

JULIAN

MAP:

Name:  Flavius Claudius Julianus

Date:  331 – 363 CE

Works:  The Caesars (satire)

              Letters

REGION  5

Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans


BIO:

Timeline:

 Also known as “the Apostate,” Emperor Julian ruled the Roman empire from 361 to 363 CE. During that time, he advocated for the return of Rome’s polytheistic state religion. Numerous works of his are extant, including letters, speeches, and satires; these provide unique insight into the perspectives of Roman nobility during that time period.

 ROMAN GREEK

ARCHAIC: (through 6th c. BCE); GOLDEN AGE: (5th - 4th c. BCE); HELLENISTIC: (4th c. BCE - 1st c. BCE); ROMAN: (1st c. BCE - 4th c. CE); POST CONSTANTINOPLE: (4th c. CE - 8th c. CE); BYZANTINE: (post 8th c CE)


 

Saturday, July 30, 2022

Sappho Sings of Artemis: fragment 44a

***Help make LGBT Meets SPQR better! If you can create a metrically accurate translation of this poem in Latin, we would gladly publish it on this blog!*** 


…Phoebo flavicomo*, quem peperit Coei filia [Latona]

Dum miscuit cum filio Saturni noto [Jove].

Diana autem deum sacramentum maximum fecit;

“Per tibi numen, [Pater hominum et deum],

Virgo in aeternum permaneo,

Venatrix per montes desolatos errabo.

Des hoc, pater, mihi optem!”

Hoc dicto, annuit deum pater.

Mortales immortalesque hanc vocant

Virginem, cervos-venatrix, deam.

Amor, ne hanc aggrediaris!

Φοίβῳ χρυσοκό[μ̣ᾳ, τὸν ἔτικτε Κόω κ̣[όρα

μίγεισ’ ὐψινέφει Κρ]ονίδᾳ μεγαλωνύμῳ·

Ἄρτεμις δὲ θέων] μέγαν ὄρκον ἀπώμοσε·

‘νὴ τὰν σὰν κεφά]λαν, ἄϊ πάρθενος ἔσσομαι

ἄδμης οἰοπό]λ̣ων ὀρέων κορύφα̣ι̣σ’ ἔπι

θηρεύοισ’· ἄγι καὶ τά]δ̣ε νεῦσον ἔμαν χάριν.’

ὢς εἶπ’· αὐτὰρ ἔνευ]σ̣ε θέων μακάρων πάτηρ.

πάρθενον δ’ ἐλαφάβ]ολον ἀγροτέραν θέο̣ι

ἄνθρωποί τε κάλε]ι̣σιν ἐπωνύμιον μέγα.

κήνᾳ λυσιμέλης] Ἔρος οὐδάμα πίλναται

* this fragment starts with a noun in the dative case. The noun is missing

--Sappho, Fragment 44a, Translated into Latin by Kris Masters


…for blonde Apollo, whom Leto bore

When she slept with the great-renowned Zeus.

But Artemis swore a serious oath:

‘Upon your head, I vow

That I will always remain a maiden,

Hunting on the desolate mountains

I will roam. Grant this to me.”

So she spoke. Zeus granted her wish.

Now men and gods alike call her Maiden, Hunter of Deer, Goddess.

Eros, stay far from her!


SAPPHO

MAP:

Name:  Σαπφώ / Sappho

Date:  630 – 570 BCE

Works:  <lost: only fragments remain>

 

REGION  5

Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans


BIO:

Timeline:

Sappho was universally applauded by the ancient world as the “Tenth Muse.” Because she was one of the earliest Greek lyric poets, there is very little definitive information on Sappho’s life.  It is generally agreed that Sappho was a wealthy noblewoman from the island of Lesbos who had three brothers and a daughter named Kleis. She used her prominent social position to support a cohort of other women artists, and composed many poems about them, expressing her love for them, praising their beauty, and celebrating their marriages. Whereas earlier Greek poetry was epic poetry with serious themes of gods, warfare, and the state, Sappho’s lyric poetry is emotional, intimate and personal. Her poetry centers around womanhood and womanly love, providing rare insight into social mores of the time period. The modern term “lesbian” (a woman who is attracted to another woman) reveals the longevity of her impact upon western culture [NOTE: Although “lesbian” is the accepted term in modern English, authors in the ancient world used a different word for a homosexual woman, and only occasionally used the term “lesbian” euphemistically]. Unfortunately, although her poetry was universally revered by the Greeks and Romans alike, Sappho’s works only exist as fragments, adding mysterious allure to her larger-than-life status but unfortunately hindering our understanding of her life and thoughts.

ARCHAIC GREEK


ARCHAIC: (through 6th c. BCE); GOLDEN AGE: (5th - 4th c. BCE); HELLENISTIC: (4th c. BCE - 1st c. BCE); ROMAN: (1st c. BCE - 4th c. CE); POST CONSTANTINOPLE: (4th c. CE - 8th c. CE); BYZANTINE: (post 8th c CE)


Friday, July 29, 2022

Not a Lord, But a Lady: Elegabalus / Bassiana, Cassius Dio, Roman History 80.16.3-5

Quem ut ille conspexit, exiliit gestu modulato: quumque ab eo salutaretur, ut par erat, "Domine Imperator salve," ipse mirum & mulibrem in modum cervice inflexa, oculisque intortis, nil cunctatus respondit: "Ne me Dominum voces, Domina enim ego sum."

καὶ ὃς ἰδὼν αὐτὸν ἀνέθορέ τε ἐρρυθμισμένως, καὶ προσειπόντα, οἷα εἰκὸς ἦν, ‘κύριε αὐτοκράτορ χαῖρε,’ θαυμαστῶς τόν τε αὐχένα γυναικίσας καὶ τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς ἐπεγκλάσας ἠμείψατο, καὶ ἔφη οὐδὲν διστάσας  ‘μή με λέγε κύριον: ἐγὼ γὰρ κυρία εἰμί.’

--Cassius Dio, Roman History, 80.16.3-5; Translated into Latin by Hermann Samuel Reimarus, 1753

When Elagabalus / Bassiana saw Zoticus, she leapt up gracefully, and when he greeted her, saying “Greetings, Emperor,” she shook her head and flashed him a smile, replying, “Don’t call me ‘lord,’ for I am a lady.”

CASSIUS DIO

MAP:

Name:  Lucius Cassius Dio

Date:  155 – 235 CE

Works:  Roman History*

 

REGION  5

Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans


BIO:

Timeline:

 Cassius Dio was a Roman statesman born in Nicaea, Bithynia who wrote an 80 volume work on Roman history that spanned from Aeneas’ flight from Troy to the rise of the emperor Severus Alexander. Although much of his history is lost, the fragments that we do have show rare insight into the Roman world.

 ROMAN GREECE

ARCHAIC: (through 6th c. BCE); GOLDEN AGE: (5th - 4th c. BCE); HELLENISTIC: (4th c. BCE - 1st c. BCE); ROMAN: (1st c. BCE - 4th c. CE); POST CONSTANTINOPLE: (4th c. CE - 8th c. CE); BYZANTINE: (post 8th c CE)


Thursday, July 28, 2022

Hierocles, Husband to an Empress, Cassius Dio, Roman History, 80.15.1-3

Content Warning: Homophobic Slur, Slavery

It is important to note that, like the Hadrian/Antinous, Domitian/Earinus, Caracalla/Festus, Nero/Sporus and other Imperial couples, the disparity in social classes between the two lovers may negate the consent of the relationship and should not be romanticized in modern times. 

ὁ δὲ δὴ ἀνὴρ αὐτῆς Ἱεροκλῆς ἦν, Καρικὸν ἀνδράποδον, Γορδίου ποτὲ παιδικὰ γενόμενον, παρ᾽ οὗ καὶ ἁρματηλατεῖν ἔμαθεν. κἀκ τούτου καὶ παραδοξότατα αὐτῷ ἠρέσθη. ἐν γάρ τοι ἱπποδρομίᾳ τινὶ ἐκπεσὼν τοῦ ἅρματος κατ᾽ αὐτὴν τὴν τοῦ Σαρδαναπάλλου* ἕδραν τό τε κράνος ἐν τῇ πτώσει ἀπέρριψε, καὶ ἐκφανεὶς αὐτῷ ῾λειογένειος δ᾽ ἔτι ἦν καὶ κόμῃ ξανθῇ ἐκεκόσμητὀ ἀνηρπάσθη τε εὐθὺς ἐς τὸ παλάτιον, κἀν τοῖς νυκτερινοῖς ἔργοις ἔτι καὶ μᾶλλον ἑλὼν αὐτὸν ὑπερηυξήθη, ὥστε καὶ ὑπὲρ αὐτὸν ἐκεῖνον ἰσχῦσαι, καὶ βραχύ τι νομισθῆναι τὸ τὴν μητέρα αὐτοῦ ἔτι δούλην οὖσαν ἔς τε τὴν Ῥώμην ὑπὸ στρατιωτῶν ἀχθῆναι κἀν ταῖς τῶν ὑπατευκότων γυναιξὶ συναριθμηθῆναι.

Erat vero vir eius, Hierocles quidam, Caricum mancipium, [qui Gordio quondam in deliciis fuerat,] a quo currus etiam agitare didicerat: qua occasione Imperatior, praeter exspectationem, placere coepit. Quum enim aliquando ludis Circensibus, e curru, ante Sardanapali* sellam, decidisset, inque eo casu galeam proiecisset; aperto capite conspectus ab illo, (imberbis autem adhuc & flava ornatus coma erat), statim raptus est in Palatium; & quum nocturnis flagitiis magis etiam cepisset Imperatorem, ita potentia auctus est, ut illo ipso plus posset; ac parum esse videretur, quod mater eius, servili adhuc conditione a militibus deduta in urbem, Consularium relata sit in numerum matronarum.

--Cassius Dio, Roman History, 80.15.1-3; Translated into Latin by Hermann Samuel Reimarus, 1753

[Elegabalus’ / Bassiana’s] husband was the Carian slave Hierocles, who had been Gordian’s concubine; he learned how to drive a chariot during this relationship. This skill is how the Emperor Elegabalus / Bassiana met him, for while Hierocles was racing, he happened to fall out of his chariot right in front of the Emperor’s seat. He lost his helmet in the fall; the sight of the baby-faced blond youth captivated the emperor, and so Hierocles was snatched up and immediately sent to the Palace. Hierocles’ romantic skills captivated the Emperor even more, and his clout rose to such prominence that, even though his mother was a slave, she was brought to Rome under military escort, where she was awarded the rank of Consular Mother.

 * Sardanapalus was a mythical Assyrian king known for his extravagance and gender-bending lifestyle

CASSIUS DIO

MAP:

Name:  Lucius Cassius Dio

Date:  155 – 235 CE

Works:  Roman History*

 

REGION  5

Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans


BIO:

Timeline:

 Cassius Dio was a Roman statesman born in Nicaea, Bithynia who wrote an 80 volume work on Roman history that spanned from Aeneas’ flight from Troy to the rise of the emperor Severus Alexander. Although much of his history is lost, the fragments that we do have show rare insight into the Roman world.

 ROMAN GREECE

ARCHAIC: (through 6th c. BCE); GOLDEN AGE: (5th - 4th c. BCE); HELLENISTIC: (4th c. BCE - 1st c. BCE); ROMAN: (1st c. BCE - 4th c. CE); POST CONSTANTINOPLE: (4th c. CE - 8th c. CE); BYZANTINE: (post 8th c CE)