Sunday, April 18, 2021

Apollo, Unlucky in Love: Lucian, Dial. Deorum. 17.2

 In this satire, Apollo mourns the losses of Daphne and Hyacinthus. According to myth, both are transformed into plants, and Apollo honors them by wearing their leaves / blossoms in a crown.


Apollo: Ego vero alias quoque habeo Venerem minus propitiam ad res amatorias; quippe etiam quos duos maxime praeter ceteros amavi, Daphne & Hyacinthum, illa quidem aufugit, atque odit me, adeo ut in lignum converti maluerit, qu mecum rem habere: hic autem a disco interfectus est, et nunc pro illis coronas habeo.

 

ἐγὼ μὲν καὶ ἄλλως ἀναφρόδιτός εἰμι ἐς τὰ [p. 94] ἐρωτικά: δύο γοῦν, οὓς μάλιστα ἠγάπησα, τὴν Δάφνην καὶ τὸν Ὑάκινθον, ἡ μὲν Δάφνη οὕτως ἐμίσησέ με, ὥστε εἵλετο ξύλον γενέσθαι μᾶλλον ἢ ἐμοὶ ξυνεῖναι, τὸν Ὑάκινθον δὲ ὑπὸ τοῦ δίσκου ἀπώλεσα, καὶ νῦν ἀντ᾽ ἐκείνων στεφάνους ἔχω.

--Lucian, Dialogi Deorum 15.1, Translated into Latin by Jacob Micyllus

I am unlucky in love. I have loved two people more than anyone: Daphne and Hyacinthus. But Daphne ran away from me, and hated me to the point that she would rather become a tree than love me; and Hyacinthus was killed by a discus, and now all I have left of them are crowns.

LUCIAN

MAP:

Name:  Lucianus Samosatensis

Date:  125 – 180 CE

Works: Dialogue of the Courtesans*

               True History, etc.

REGION  4

Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans


BIO:

Timeline:

 Lucian was a Turkish-born Roman satirist who wrote in ancient Greek. His works are a mixture of sarcasm, wit, and biting social criticism. He is without a doubt one of the most popular authors of the later Roman empire.

 ROMAN GREECE

ARCHAIC: (through 6th c. BCE); GOLDEN AGE: (5th - 4th c. BCE); HELLENISTIC: (4th c. BCE - 1st c. BCE); ROMAN: (1st c. BCE - 4th c. CE); POST CONSTANTINOPLE: (4th c. CE - 8th c. CE); BYZANTINE: (post 8th c CE)


 


Saturday, April 17, 2021

Apollo Mourns the Loss of Hyacinthus: Luc, Dial. Deo. 14

M: Quid vero tristis es, Apollo?

A: Quoniam, o Mercuri, miser atque infelix circa amores sum.

M: Dignum quidem maerore hoc: sed tu quo pacto miser atque infelix es? An adhuc dolore afficit te id quod cum Daphne accidit?

A: Nequaquam, sed amasium doleo Laconem illum Oebali filium.

M: An mortuus est Hyacinthus? dic mihi.

A: Atque admodum.

M: Unde Apollo? Aut quis ita ab omni amore alienus fuit, ut occiderit formosum illum puerum?

A: Meum ipsius factum hoc est.

M: Quid igitur? Insanivisin' Apollo?

A: Non, sed inforunium quoddam invito mihi accidit.

M: Quomodo: cupio enim audire rationem hanc.

A: Disco ludere discebat, atque ego una cum illo ludebam. Ceterum ventorum omnium pessime perditus Zephyrus amabat quidem longo iam tempore etiam ipse illum. Verum neglecto eo, & contemptum istum non ferente, ego quidem, quemadmodum consueveramus, discum in altum sursum versus iaculabar, ille autem deorsum a Taygeto spirans, ablatum hunc in caput puero inflixit, ita ut ex ea plaga & cruror manaret affatim & ipse puer statim moreretur. Verum ego e vestigio Zephyrum ulciscebar, tortis in eum sagittis, fugientemque ad montem usque persequendo. Puero autem & tumulum extruxi in Amyclis, quo loco discus eum prostravit & florem ex cruore illius terram induere feci, suavissimusm illum quidem Mercuri, atque omnium fragrantissimum, praeterea & literas quasdam habentem, quae mortuum ipsum quasi deplorant. Num tibi igitur praeter rationem maestus fuisse videor?

M: Sane vero, Apollo. Noras enim mortalem te comparasse amasium tibi: quare dolere non debes mortuo iam illo.


Ἑρμῆς

τί σκυθρωπός, ὦ Ἄπολλον;

 

Ἀπόλλων

ὅτι, ὦ Ἑρμῆ, δυστυχῶ ἐν τοῖς ἐρωτικοῖς.

 

Ἑρμῆς

ἄξιον μὲν λύπης τὸ τοιοῦτο: σὺ δὲ τί δυστυχεῖς; ἢ τὸ κατὰ τὴν Δάφνην σε λυπεῖ ἔτι;

 

Ἀπόλλων

οὐδαμῶς: ἀλλὰ ἐρώμενον πενθῶ τὸν Λάκωνα τὸν Οἰβάλου.

 

Ἑρμῆς

τέθνηκε γάρ, εἰπέ μοι, ὁ Ὑάκινθος;

 

Ἀπόλλων

καὶ μάλα.

 

Ἑρμῆς

πρὸς τίνος, ὦ Ἄπολλον; ἢ τίς οὕτως ἀνέραστος ἦν ὡς ἀποκτεῖναι τὸ καλὸν ἐκεῖνο μειράκιον;

 

Ἀπόλλων

αὐτοῦ ἐμοῦ τὸ ἔργον.

 

Ἑρμῆς

οὐκοῦν ἐμάνης, ὦ Ἄπολλον;

 

Ἀπόλλων

οὔκ, ἀλλὰ δυστύχημά τι ἀκούσιον ἐγένετο.

 

Ἑρμῆς

πῶς; ἐθέλω γὰρ ἀκοῦσαι τὸν τρόπον.

Ἀπόλλων

[2] δισκεύειν ἐμάνθανε κἀγὼ συνεδίσκευον αὐτῷ, ὁ δὲ κάκιστα ἀνέμων ἀπολούμενος ὁ Ζέφυρος ἤρα [p. 93] μὲν ἐκ πολλοῦ καὶ αὐτός, ἀμελούμενος δὲ καὶ μὴ φέρων τὴν ὑπεροψίαν, ἐγὼ μὲν ἀνέρριψα, ὥσπερ εἰώθειμεν, τὸν δίσκον ἐς τὸ ἄνω, ὁ δὲ ἀπὸ τοῦ Ταϋγέτου καταπνεύσας ἐπὶ κεφαλὴν τῷ παιδὶ ἐνέσεισε φέρων αὐτόν, ὥστε ἀπὸ τῆς πληγῆς αἷμά τε ῥυῆναι πολὺ καὶ τὸν παῖδα εὐθέως ἀποθανεῖν. ἀλλὰ ἐγὼ τὸν μὲν Ζέφυρον αὐτίκα ἠμυνάμην κατατοξεύσας, φεύγοντι ἐπισπόμενος ἄχρι τοῦ ὄρους, τῷ παιδὶ δὲ καὶ τὸν τάφον μὲν ἐχωσάμην ἐν Ἀμύκλαις, ὅπου ὁ δίσκος αὐτὸν κατέβαλε, καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ αἵματος ἄνθος ἀναδοῦναι τὴν γῆν ἐποίησα ἥδιστον, ὦ Ἑρμῆ, καὶ εὐανθέστατον ἀνθέων ἁπάντων, ἔτι καὶ γράμματα ἔχον ἐπαιάζοντα τῷ νεκρῷ. ἆρά σοι ἀλόγως λελυπῆσθαι δοκῶ;

Ἑρμῆς

ναί, ὦ Ἄπολλον: ᾔδεις γὰρ θνητὸν πεποιημένος τὸν ἐρώμενον: ὥστε μὴ ἄχθου ἀποθανόντος.

--Lucian, Dialogi Deorum 14,   trans. Jacobus Micyllus

Mercury: Why are you so sad, Apollo?

Apollo: Mercury, I’m miserable and unhappy because of my love life.

Mercury: That’s a good reason to be miserable. But why are you so unhappy? Or are you still upset about Daphne?

Apollo: Nope, I’m upset about my boyfriend, the Laconian son of Oebalus.

Mercury: Oh no! Did Hyacinthus die? Tell me!

Apollo: Yep.

Mercury: How did it happen, Apollo? Who is such a stranger to love, that they would kill such a handsome young man?

Apollo: I’m to blame.

Mercury: Why? Did you go crazy, Apollo?

Apollo: No. I didn’t want it to happen; it was a terrible accident.

Mercury: How so? I want to hear what happened.

Apollo: He was practicing the discus, and I was practicing with him. Zephyrus, the worst of all the winds, loved him for a long time. But, because he was rejected by Hyacinthus and didn’t handle the rejection well—well, when I threw the discus high in the air (as I usually do), he rushed from Taygetus and struck the boy in the head with it. It hit Hyacinthus so hard that he immediately fell down dead, bleeding from the wound. I followed Zephyrus, trying to avenge Hyacinthus’ death, and I followed him all the way back to his mountain home. Then I built a tomb for the lad in Amyclis (where the discus had killed him), and I made a flower blossom from his blood in the soil where he fell. And let me tell you, Mercury, it’s the prettiest and sweetest-smelling flower there is, and there are letters written upon it that spell out a mourning cry for him (AI! AI!). Do you think I seem too upset for this loss?

Mercury: Absolutely, Apollo. You knew what would happen if you fell in love with a human lover: you shouldn’t grieve him that a mortal has died.

 

 

LUCIAN

MAP:

Name:  Lucianus Samosatensis

Date:  125 – 180 CE

Works: Dialogue of the Courtesans*

               True History, etc.

REGION  4

Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans


BIO:

Timeline:

 Lucian was a Turkish-born Roman satirist who wrote in ancient Greek. His works are a mixture of sarcasm, wit, and biting social criticism. He is without a doubt one of the most popular authors of the later Roman empire.

 ROMAN GREECE

ARCHAIC: (through 6th c. BCE); GOLDEN AGE: (5th - 4th c. BCE); HELLENISTIC: (4th c. BCE - 1st c. BCE); ROMAN: (1st c. BCE - 4th c. CE); POST CONSTANTINOPLE: (4th c. CE - 8th c. CE); BYZANTINE: (post 8th c CE)




 

Free from Cupid's Influence: The Muses, Greek Anthology ix.39

 Cypris Musis: "Puellulae, ait, Venerem

Colite, aut Amorem ego in-vos amabo."

Et Musae ad Cyprin: "Marti dic pulchella ista;

nobis vero non volat iste puerulus."

 

ἁ Κύπρις Μούσαισι:

κοράσια, τὰν Ἀφροδίταν

τιμᾶτ᾽, ἢ τὸν Ἔρων ὔμμιν ἐφοπλίσομαι.

 

χαἰ Μοῦσαι ποτὶ Κύπριν

Ἄρει τὰ στωμύλα ταῦτα:

ἡμῖν δ᾽ οὐ πέτεται τοῦτο τὸ παιδάριον.

--Musicius, Greek Anthology ix.39; Translated into Latin by Friedrich Duebner (1871)

Venus told the Muses: “Little girls, worship me,

Or I will make Cupid attack you.”

The Muses replied: “Tell that chit-chat to Ares;

Your kid has no authority among us!”

<Anonymous>

MAP:

Name:  ????

Date: 

Works:  Greek Anthology; Anthologia Graeca; Florilegii Graecii

 

REGION  UNKNOWN

Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans


BIO:

Timeline:

 The Greek Anthology is a modern collection of Greek lyric poetry compiled from various sources over the course of Greco-Roman literature. The current collection was created from two major sources, one from the 10th century CE and one from the 14th century CE. The anthology contains authors spanning the entirety of Greek literature, from archaic poets to Byzantine Christian poets. 

 Byzantine Greek

ARCHAIC: (through 6th c. BCE); GOLDEN AGE: (5th - 4th c. BCE); HELLENISTIC: (4th c. BCE - 1st c. BCE); ROMAN: (1st c. BCE - 4th c. CE); POST CONSTANTINOPLE: (4th c. CE - 8th c. CE); BYZANTINE: (post 8th c CE)



Friday, April 16, 2021

Webinar: "LGBT MEETS SPQR: Resources..."

If you were unable to attend my webinar, "LGBT Meets SPQR: Resources and Lesson Plans for Including LGBTQIA+ Instruction into High School Latin Curricula"  hosted by Bolchazy-Carducci on March 23rd,  you can find a copy of the PowerPoint HERE.

Blurb: The purpose of this webinar is to provide lesson plans and authentic Latin and Greek sources on gender and sexuality in the ancient Greco-Roman world. High school appropriate materials will be provided to enhance representation and foster conversations on LGBTQIA+ topics in the classroom. Ancient terminology and voices on how the ancients defined themselves  will also be discussed.

A Gift to Pallas Athena: Greek Anthology vi.10

 Tritogenia, Sospitatrix, Iovis filia lecti-genialis-inimica,

Pallas, puerperii-expertis domina virginitatis,

aram tibi cornibus-instructam posuit hanc Seleucus,

Phoebeam vocem edente ore.


Τριτογενές, Σώτειρα, Διὸς φυγοδέμνιε κούρα,

Παλλάς, ἀπειροτόκου δεσπότι παρθενίης,

βωμόν τοι κεραοῦχον ἐδείματο τόνδε Σέλευκος,

Φοιβείαν ἰαχὰν φθεγγομένου στόματος.

--Antipater of Sidon, Greek Anthology vi.10; Translated into Latin by Friedrich Duebner (1871)

African born, our savior, marriage-shunning daughter of Jupiter,

Pallas Athena, virgin goddess in charge of her virginity,

Seleucus, obedient to Apollo's prophetic words, 

has made this altar adorned with horns for you


ANTIPATER of SIDON

MAP:

Name:  Antipater of Sidon

Date:  2nd century BCE

Works:  <fragments>

 

REGION  4

Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans


BIO:

Timeline:

 Antipater of Sidon was a Greek poet who lived during the 2nd century BCE.  Little is known about him, and only a handful of his poetry was preserved in the Greek Anthology.

 HELLENISTIC GREEK

ARCHAIC: (through 6th c. BCE); GOLDEN AGE: (5th - 4th c. BCE); HELLENISTIC: (4th c. BCE - 1st c. BCE); ROMAN: (1st c. BCE - 4th c. CE); POST CONSTANTINOPLE: (4th c. CE - 8th c. CE); BYZANTINE: (post 8th c CE)




<Anonymous>

MAP:

Name:  ????

Date: 

Works:  Greek Anthology; Anthologia Graeca; Florilegii Graecii

 

REGION  UNKNOWN

Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans


BIO:

Timeline:

 The Greek Anthology is a modern collection of Greek lyric poetry compiled from various sources over the course of Greco-Roman literature. The current collection was created from two major sources, one from the 10th century CE and one from the 14th century CE. The anthology contains authors spanning the entirety of Greek literature, from archaic poets to Byzantine Christian poets. 

 Byzantine Greek

ARCHAIC: (through 6th c. BCE); GOLDEN AGE: (5th - 4th c. BCE); HELLENISTIC: (4th c. BCE - 1st c. BCE); ROMAN: (1st c. BCE - 4th c. CE); POST CONSTANTINOPLE: (4th c. CE - 8th c. CE); BYZANTINE: (post 8th c CE)



Wednesday, April 14, 2021

In Praise of Sappho: Greek Anthology 9.66 & 9.506

Antipater of Sidon (ix.66):

Mnemosyne Sapphus* audit dum carmina, dixit,

unde novem Musis additur una soror?

(*4th declension genitive singular form)


Μναμοσύναν ἕλε θάμβος, ὅτ᾽ ἔκλυε τᾶς μελιφώνου

Σαπφοῦς, μὴ δεκάταν Μοῦσαν ἔχουσι βροτοί.



When Mnemosyne heard Sappho's sweet voice, 

she wondered if there were a tenth Muse.


Plato (ix.506)

Novem Musas dicunt quidam: quam negligenter!

ecce et Sappho e Lexbo decima.


ἐννέα τὰς Μούσας φασίν τινες: ὡς ὀλιγώρως:

ἠνίδε καὶ Σαπφὼ Λεσβόθεν ἡ δεκάτη.


They say there are nine Muses: nope!

Sappho of Lesbos is the tenth!


--Antipater of Sidon, Greek Anthology ix.66 and Plato, Greek Anthology ix.506; translated into Latin by Friedrich Duebner, 1872



ANTIPATER of SIDON

MAP:

Name:  Antipater of Sidon

Date:  2nd century BCE

Works:  <fragments>

 

REGION  4

Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans


BIO:

Timeline:

 Antipater of Sidon was a Greek poet who lived during the 2nd century BCE.  Little is known about him, and only a handful of his poetry was preserved in the Greek Anthology.

 HELLENISTIC GREEK

ARCHAIC: (through 6th c. BCE); GOLDEN AGE: (5th - 4th c. BCE); HELLENISTIC: (4th c. BCE - 1st c. BCE); ROMAN: (1st c. BCE - 4th c. CE); POST CONSTANTINOPLE: (4th c. CE - 8th c. CE); BYZANTINE: (post 8th c CE)



PLATO

MAP:

Name:  Plato

Date:  428 BCE – 348 BCE

Works:  Apology of Socrates

               The Republic

               Symposium*, etc.

REGION  5

Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans


BIO:

Timeline:

 Plato was an Athenian philosopher who is considered one of the most influential minds of Greek thought. Using his predecessor Socrates as his mouthpiece, he composed a number of philosophical dialogues that explored various ethical, philosophical, and moral concepts. He was the founder of the Athenian Academy, and was the mentor of the famous philosopher Aristotle.

 GOLDEN AGE GREECE

ARCHAIC: (through 6th c. BCE); GOLDEN AGE: (5th - 4th c. BCE); HELLENISTIC: (4th c. BCE - 1st c. BCE); ROMAN: (1st c. BCE - 4th c. CE); POST CONSTANTINOPLE: (4th c. CE - 8th c. CE); BYZANTINE: (post 8th c CE)





<Anonymous>

MAP:

Name:  ????

Date: 

Works:  Greek Anthology; Anthologia Graeca; Florilegii Graecii

 

REGION  UNKNOWN

Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans


BIO:

Timeline:

 The Greek Anthology is a modern collection of Greek lyric poetry compiled from various sources over the course of Greco-Roman literature. The current collection was created from two major sources, one from the 10th century CE and one from the 14th century CE. The anthology contains authors spanning the entirety of Greek literature, from archaic poets to Byzantine Christian poets. 

 Byzantine Greek

ARCHAIC: (through 6th c. BCE); GOLDEN AGE: (5th - 4th c. BCE); HELLENISTIC: (4th c. BCE - 1st c. BCE); ROMAN: (1st c. BCE - 4th c. CE); POST CONSTANTINOPLE: (4th c. CE - 8th c. CE); BYZANTINE: (post 8th c CE)



Monday, April 12, 2021

Christianizing the Myth of Apollo & Daphne: John Gower Confessio Amantis III.1685ff

 Comparing this Christianized version of the Apollo & Daphne myth with its ancient versions can help us see how cultural perspectives have changed over time

Hic ponit Confessor exemplum contra illos qui in amoris causa nimium festinatione concupiscentes tardius expediunt. Et narrat qualiter pro eo quod Phebus quamdam virginem pulcerimam nomine Daphnem nimia amoris acceleratione insequebatur, iratus Cupido cor Phebi sagitta aurea ignita ardentius vulneravit: et econtra cor Daphnae quadam sagitta plumbea, quae frigidissima fuit, sobrius perforavit. Et sic quanto magis Phebus ardentior in amore Daphnem prosecutus est, tanto magis ipsa frigidior Phebi concupiscentiam toto corde fugitiva dedignabatur.

--John Gower, Confessio Amantis III.1685ff

Here the narrator provides an example about those who use being in love as an excuse to pressure those who aren’t ready. And he provides an example, explaining how Phoebus [Apollo] loved a very beautiful woman named Daphne, and pressured her way too much for love. This angered Cupid and he wounded Phoebus’ heart with a golden arrow, making him burn for love even more fiercely; but he struck Daphne’s heart with a lead arrow, and she became very aloof to him. And so the more passionately Phoebus pursued Daphne in love, the more standoffish she became, and ultimately disdained Phoebus’ attraction for her with her whole heart.

JOHN GOWER

MAP:

Name:  John Gower

Date:  1330 – 1408 CE

Works:  Confessio Amantis

 

REGION  2

Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans


BIO:

Timeline:

 John Gower was a 14th century English poet. He was a contemporary and peer of Geoffrey Chaucer; both authors use overlapping characters and themes. Although his Confessio Amantis was written in English, the Latin text of this story was taken from the summaries that the author wrote for each chapter in Latin.

 LATE LATIN

Early Roman Lit: through 2nd c BCE: Republican Rome: through 1st c. BCE; Golden Age: 70 BCE to 18 CE; Silver Age: 18 CE to 150 CE; Age of Conflict: 150 CE - 410 CE; Byzantine and Late Latin: after 410 CE