Sunday, October 18, 2020

M/M: A Friend Who'll Have Your Back: Orestes & Pylades, Cicero, de Fin. II.24.79

Sed quid ages tandem, si utilitas ab amicitia, ut fit saepe, defecerit? Relinquesne? Quae ista amicitia est? Retinebis? Qui convenit? Quid enim de amicitia statueris utilitatis causa expetenda vides.  Vadem te ad mortem tyranno dabis pro amico, ut Pythagoreus ille Siculo fecit tyranno? Aut, Pylades cum sis, dices te esse Orestem, ut moriare pro amico? Aut, si esses Orestes, Pyladem refelleres, te indicares et, si id non probares, quo minus ambo una necaremini non precarere?


--Cicero, De Fin.II.24.79


What will you do when a friendship is no longer useful to you (as what usually happens)? Will you end it? What kind of friendship is that? Will you hold onto it? How will it benefit you? You’ll question your definition of friendship if you only base it on how it benefits you….

Will you offer yourself up to a tyrant to be killed to save a friend, like that Pythagorean* did to the Sicilian tyrant? Or, if you were Pylades, would you proclaim that you were Orestes, so that you could die for your friend? Or even if you were Orestes, would you contradict Pylades, give yourself up, and, if you could not convince the tyrant of your identity, would you pray that you both be killed together?

[*the myth of Pythias and Damon]


CICERO

MAP:

Name:  Marcus Tullius Cicero

Date:  106 BCE – 43 BCE

Works: de Amicitia

               de Divinatione*

               Epistles

               In Catilinam

              Pro Archiam, etc.

 

REGION  1

Map of Roman Empire Divided into Regions


BIO:

Timeline:

 Cicero was an Italian-born Roman statesman and author who lived during the complexities of Rome’s transition from Republic to monarchy. Cicero spent most of his life in service of his country, serving as both a lawyer, senator, and even consul [Roman equivalent of president]. He is known for his suppression of the failed governmental coup in 63 BCE known as the Catilinarian conspiracy that occurred during his consulship. After the rise of Octavian [later known as the first Roman emperor Augustus], his views fell out of favor and he was eventually put to death during the proscriptions under the Second Triumvirate (Octavian, Marc Antony and Lepidus). He was a prolific author with a wide range in genres, and his literary style was adopted by Petrarch as the default model for the Latin language.

 GOLDEN AGE ROME

Timeline of Latin Literature with "GOLDEN AGE" era highlighted


M/M: We Both Go Down Together: Orestes & Pylades, Cicero de Fin. V.22.63

"Ego sum Orestes", contraque ab altero: "Immo enimvero ego sum, inquam, Orestes!" Cum autem etiam exitus ab utroque datur conturbato errantique regi, ambo ergo se una necari cum precantur, quotiens hoc agitur, ecquandone nisi admirationibus maximis?

 --Cicero, De Fin. V.22.63, quoting a work by Pacuvius

One says, “I am Orestes!”

The other responds, “No—it is I who am Orestes!”

And when both give an opportunity for the other to escape from the confused king, both beg that they be killed together.

Every time this scene is done, it receives the highest applause.




PACUVIUS

MAP:

Name:  Marcus Pacuvius

Date:  220 BCE – 130 BCE

Works:  [tragedies]

 

REGION  1

Map of Roman Empire Divided into Regions


BIO:

Timeline:

 Although only fragments of his works survive, we know from later authors that Pacuvius was an early Italian tragedian whose works included episodes from the Trojan War. He is one of the earliest Roman dramatists, and was successor to Ennius, Rome’s first literary author.

EARLY ROMAN
Timeline of Latin Literature with "EARLY ROMAN" era highlighted



CICERO

MAP:

Name:  Marcus Tullius Cicero

Date:  106 BCE – 43 BCE

Works: de Amicitia

               de Divinatione*

               Epistles

               In Catilinam

              Pro Archiam, etc.

 

REGION  1

Map of Roman Empire Divided into Regions


BIO:

Timeline:

 Cicero was an Italian-born Roman statesman and author who lived during the complexities of Rome’s transition from Republic to monarchy. Cicero spent most of his life in service of his country, serving as both a lawyer, senator, and even consul [Roman equivalent of president]. He is known for his suppression of the failed governmental coup in 63 BCE known as the Catilinarian conspiracy that occurred during his consulship. After the rise of Octavian [later known as the first Roman emperor Augustus], his views fell out of favor and he was eventually put to death during the proscriptions under the Second Triumvirate (Octavian, Marc Antony and Lepidus). He was a prolific author with a wide range in genres, and his literary style was adopted by Petrarch as the default model for the Latin language.

 GOLDEN AGE ROME

Timeline of Latin Literature with "GOLDEN AGE" era highlighted



Sunday, October 4, 2020

A Trans Man: Caeneus, Phlegon of Tralles' De Mira. V

Iidem perhibent, apud Lapithas Elato regi filiam fuisse, nomine Caenidem. Cum hac Neptunum congressum, promisisse, facturum se ei quodcumque vellet: ipsam petiisse, ut ab eo in virum mutaretur, fieretque invulnerabiis; praestitisse id Neptunum, nomenque viro Caenaeus factum.


--Phlegon of Tralles, de Mirabilibus V; Translated into Latin by Wilhelm Xylander 


They say that Caenis was the daughter of the Lapith king Elatus. When she “met” Neptune, he promised that he would grant her whatever she wanted: and she asked to be turned into a man, as well as become invincible. Neptune granted his wish, and the man’s name became Caenaeus. 


Phlegon of Tralles

MAP:

Name:  Phlegon

Date: 2nd century CE

Works:  On Marvels

 

REGION  5

Map of Rome Divided into Regions


BIO:

Timeline:

According to the Suda [φ527], Phlegon of Tralles was a freedman of the Roman Emperor Hadrian. He wrote numerous works in Greek that are now lost, including the Olympiads and Roman festivals. His work, On Marvels, is a collection of extraordinary occurrences throughout history.

 

 Roman Greek Literature

Timeline of Greek Literature with "ROMAN" era highlighted



Sunday, September 27, 2020

W/W: Artemis' Love Among the Ladies, Callimachus, Hymn to Artemis, 183-219

The poet Callimachus portrays Artemis as both asexual / chaste as well as the lover of women. 


Quae autem, quaeso, insularum, quique mons placuit maxime?

Quique lacus? Quaeque urbs? Quamque inprimis Nympham

amas, & quas heroinas habuisti sodales?

Dic, Dea, tu quidem nobis, ego vero aliis canam.

Ex insulis quidem Doliche, ex urbibus autem tibi placuit Perga,

Teugetus e montibus, portusque Euripi.

Prae ceteris autem Gortyniam adamasti Nympham,

Cervorum interfectricem, Britomartin, bene collimantem: cuius quondam Minos

Percussus amore, pererravit montes Cretae.

Nympha autem modo sub umbrosis latebus querubus comantibus,

modo in paludibus. Ille vero per novem menses erravit

in saxis & rupibus; neque destiti persequi,

Donec, propemodum deprensa, desiluit in mare

Rupe de summa, insiluitque in piscatorum

Retia, per quae est servata. Unde postea Cydones

Nympham quidem Dictynnam, montem autem, unde desiluit Nympha,

Dictaeum vocarunt, dedicaruntque aras

et sacra faciunt. Sertum autem illa die

aut pinus est, aut lentiscus: myrto autem manus sunt intactae.

Nam tum myrteo ramo adhaesit peplum

puellae, cum fugeret, eaque propter valde indignata est myrto.

Upi regina, pulcra, faces gestans, etiam te illa

Cretenses cognomine vocant a nympha.

Enimvero etiam Cyrenen sodalem sumsisti, cui aliquando dedisti

ipsa duos canes venaticos, per quos virgo

Hypseis ad tumulum Iolcium adepta est palmam.

Etiam Cephali flavam uxorem Deionidae,

Veneranda, comitem venationum tuarum fecisti: atque etiam te dicunt

pulchram Anticleam, ut oculos tuos, amasse,

Quae primae celeres arcus, inque humeris pharetras

sagittiferas tulerunt: cum nudus ipsis humerus

Dexter, nudaque semper extaret mamma

Amasti praeterea valde pedibus celerem Atalantam,

Filiam Iasii apricidam Arcasidae,

eamque & venari & sagittis scite uti docuisti.


τίς δέ νύ τοι νήσων, ποῖον δ᾽ ὄρος εὔαδε πλεῖστον,

τίς δὲ λιμήν, ποίη δὲ πόλις; τίνα δ᾽ ἔξοχα νυμφέων

185φίλαο, καὶ ποίας ἡρωίδας ἔσχες ἑταίρας;

εἰπὲ θεὴ σὺ μὲν ἄμμιν, ἐγὼ δ᾽ ἑτέροισιν ἀείσω.

νήσων μὲν Δολίχη, πολίων δέ τοι εὔαδε Πέργη,

Τηύγετον δ᾽ ὀρέων, λιμένες γε μὲν Εὐρίποιο.

ἔξοχα δ᾽ ἀλλάων Γορτυνίδα φίλαο νύμφην,

190ἐλλοφόνον Βριτόμαρτιν ἐύσκοπον: ἧς ποτε Μίνως

πτοιηθεὶς ὑπ᾽ ἔρωτι κατέδραμεν οὔρεα Κρήτης.

ἣ δ᾽ ὁτὲ μὲν λασίηισιν ὑπὸ δρυσὶ κρύπτετο νύμφη,

ἄλλοτε δ᾽ εἱαμενῆισιν: ὃ δ᾽ ἐννέα μῆνας ἐφοίτα

παίπαλά τε κρημνούς τε καὶ οὐκ ἀνέπαυσε διωκτύν,

195μέσφ᾽ ὅτε μαρπτομένη καὶ δὴ σχεδὸν ἥλατο πόντον

πρηόνος ἐξ ὑπάτοιο καὶ ἔνθορεν εἰς ἁλιήων

δίκτυα, τά σφ᾽ ἐσάωσαν: ὅθεν μετέπειτα Κύδωνες

νύμφην μὲν Δίκτυναν, ὄρος δ᾽ ὅθεν ἥλατο νύμφη

Δικταῖον καλέουσιν, ἀνεστήσαντο δὲ βωμούς

200ἱερά τε ῥέζουσι: τὸ δὲ στέφος ἤματι κείνωι

ἢ πίτυς ἢ σχῖνος, μύρτοιο δὲ χεῖρες ἄθικτοι:

δὴ τότε γὰρ πέπλοισιν ἐνέσχετο μύρσινος ὄζος

τῆς κούρης, ὅτ᾽ ἔφευγεν: ὅθεν μέγα χώσατο μύρτωι.

Οὖπι ἄνασσ᾽ εὐῶπι φαεσφόρε, καὶ δὲ σὲ κείνην

205Κρηταέες καλέουσιν ἐπωνυμίην ἀπὸ νύμφης.

καὶ μὴν Κυρήνην ἑταρίσσαο, τῆι ποτ᾽ ἔδωκας

αὐτὴ θηρητῆρε δύω κύνε, τοῖς ἔνι κούρη

Ὑψηὶς παρὰ τύμβον Ἰώλκιον ἔμμορ᾽ ἀέθλου.

καὶ Κεφάλου ξανθὴν ἄλοχον Δηιονίδαο

210πότνια σὴν ὁμόθηρον ἐθήκαο: καὶ δὲ σὲ φασί

καλὴν Ἀντίκλειαν ἴσον φαέεσσι φιλῆσαι,

αἳ πρῶται θοὰ τόξα καὶ ἀμφ᾽ ὤμοισι φαρέτρας

ἰοδόκους ἐφόρησαν: ἀσύλλωτοι δέ φιν ὦμοι

δεξιτεροὶ καὶ γυμνὸς ἀεὶ παρεφαίνετο μαζός.

215ἤινησας δ᾽ ἔτι πάγχυ ποδορρώρην Ἀταλάντην,

κούρην Ἰασίοιο συοκτόνον Ἀρκασίδαο,

καί ἑ κυνηλασίην τε καὶ εὐστοχίην ἐδίδαξας.


--Callimachus, Hymn to Artemis, 183-217; translated into Latin by Jo. Augustus Ernest


Tell me, what island pleases you most? 

What mountain? What lake? What city?

What nymph do you love the most, 

what heroines do you keep as companions?

Tell me, Goddess, and I will tell others.

Doliche is your favorite island, Perga is your favorite city,

Taygeton is your favorite mountain, and Euripis is your favorite strait.

Of all the nymphs, you passionately loved the Gortynian Britomartis,

The amazing archer and slayer of deer. Once, Minos was smitten by her, 

and he wandered over the mountains of Crete in search of her.

The nymph hid under the leafy oak trees and in marshes.

He searched for her among the stones and craigs for nine months;

He never stopped searching for her, until

Nearly captured by him, she leapt into the sea from a tall cliff

Landed in a fisherman’s net, and was saved.

Thereafter the Cretans called the nymph “Dictynna,”  [Net Lady]

And called the cliff that she jumped from “Dictaen” [Net Cliff];

They made a dedicatory altar there and made their sacrifices.

On that holiday, they make garlands of pine or mastic tree, but never myrtle.

For while she was fleeing, her tunic was caught on a myrtle branch

And so Britomartis *hates* the myrtle tree.

Upis, o beautiful light-bringer, the Cretans even call you this, too.

Then you took up Cyrene as your companion, and you gave her

Two of your hunting dogs, which Hypseis’ daughter used to gain victory

At Iolchus’ tomb.

You also loved the golden-haired wife of Cephalus,  

And made her your hunting companion:

And they say that you loved  the beautiful Anticlea more than your own eyes;

These women were the first to wear their hunting bow

And quiver upon their naked shoulder;

Their right shoulder was always naked,

Their right breast was always exposed.

You really loved swift-footed Atalanta,

The boar-slaying daughter of Arcadian Iasius,

You taught her to hunt and use her arrows with skill.

CALLIMACHUS / Καλλίμαχος

MAP:

Name:  Callimachus

Date:  305 – 240 BCE

Works:  Aitia (Causes)

              Hymns

             Pinakes (Table of Contents)

REGION  3 / 4

Map of Roman Empire Divided into Regions


BIO:

Timeline:

 Callimachus is often regarded as one of the best Alexandrian [Greek] poets. Born in raised in Cyrene, Libya, he spent a majority of his career at the famous Library of Alexandria, where he used the resources there to create refined, artful poetry. Although much of his poetry is lost, the fragments that remain are a testament to both his talent as an artist and his erudition as a scholar.

ALEXANDRIAN

Timeline of Greek Literature with "ALEXANDRIAN" era highlighted



I Never Shall Marry: Artemis, Callimachus' Hymn to Artemis, 1.1-25

 Dianam (grave enim canentibus oblivisci)

Canimus, cui arcus venationesque cordi,

Et chorus magnus & in montibus ludi.

Incipientes inde, ut in patris sedens genubus,

Puela adhuc parvula, sic allocuta est patrem:

Da mihi virginitatem, Pater, aeternam servare

et nomina multa, ne mihi se praeferat Phoebus.

Da etiam saggitas & arcum: sine Pater. Non te pharetram,

aut magnam posco arcum: mihi Cyclopes sagittas

statim elaborabunt, mihi etiam flexilem arcum:

sed ut faces geram, et ad genua usque tunica

succingar virgata, ferasque perimam.

Da mihi porro sexaginta Oceaninas, quae mecum choros agant,

Omnes iuvenculas, omnes adhuc puellas impuberes

da etiam ministras, viginti nymphas Amnisidas,

quae mihi venatica calceamenta & cum lyncas

cervosque venari desidero, veloces canes recte curent.

Da mihi denique montes omnes: urbem autam unam attribue,

quamcumque. Raro enim in urbem veniet Diana.

In montibus habitabo: urbes autem accedam

tum modo, cum mulieres, accutis partus doloribus,

vexatae, auxiliatricem vocent, quibus me Parcae,

ut primum nata sum, destinarun opem ferre:

quod me pariens ferensque (utero) non doluit,

Mater, sed sine labore doposuit gremio."


Ἄρτεμιν (οὐ γὰρ ἐλαφρὸν ἀειδόντεσσι λαθέσθαι)

ὑμνέομεν, τῆι τόξα λαγωβολίαι τε μέλονται

καὶ χορὸς ἀμφιλαφὴς καὶ ἐν οὔρεσιν ἑψιάασθαι,

ἄρχμενοι, ὡς ὅτε πατρὸς ἐφεζομένη γονάτεσσι

παῖς ἔτι κουρίζουσα τάδε προσέειπε γονῆα

'δός μοι παρθενίην αἰώνιον ἄππα φυλάσσειν,

καὶ πολυωνυμίην, ἵνα μή μοι Φοῖβος ἐρίζηι.

δὸς δ᾽ ἰοὺς καὶ τόξα — ἔα πάτερ, οὔ σε φαρέτρην

οὐδ᾽ αἰτέω μέγα τόξον: ἐμοὶ Κύκλωπες ὀιστοὺς

αὐτίκα τεχνήσονται, ἐμοὶ δ᾽ εὐκαμπὲς ἄεμμα:

ἀλλὰ φαεσφορίην τε καὶ ἐς γόνυ μέχρι χιτῶνα

ζώννυσθαι λεγνωτόν, ἵν᾽ ἄγρια θηρία καίνω.

δὸς δέ μοι ἑξήκοντα χορίτιδας Ὠκεανίνας,

πάσας εἰνέτεας, πάσας ἔτι παῖδας ἀμίτρους.

δὸς δέ μοι ἀμφιπόλους Ἀμνισίδας εἴκοσι νύμφας,

αἵ τέ μοι ἐνδρομίδας τε καί, ὁππότε μηκέτι λύγκας

μήτ᾽ ἐλάφους βάλλοιμι, θοοὺς κύνας εὖ κομέοιεν,

δὸς δέ μοι οὔρεα πάντα: πόλιν δέ μοι ἥντινα νεῖμον

ἥντινα λῆις: σπαρνὸν γὰρ ὅτ᾽ Ἄρτεμις ἄστυ κάτεισιν:

οὔρεσιν οἰκήσω, πόλεσιν δ᾽ ἐπιμείξομαι ἀνδρῶν

μοῦνον ὅτ᾽ ὀξείηισιν ὑπ᾽ ὠδίνεσσι γυναῖκες

τειρόμεναι καλέουσι βοηθόον, ἧισί με Μοῖραι

γεινομένην τὸ πρῶτον ἐπεκλήρωσαν ἀρήγειν,

ὅττι με καὶ τίκτουσα καὶ οὐκ ἤλγησε φέρουσα

μήτηρ, ἀλλ᾽ ἀμογητὶ φίλων ἀπεθήκατο γυίων᾽.


--Callimachus, Hymn to Artemis, 1-25

 

I sing of Diana (for who can forget her in song?!),

Whose heart is full of archery & hunting,

her flock of followers, and her mountain-adventures.

While still a girl, she sat upon her father’s lap, and began as follows:

“Father, give me control over my virginity, so that I may keep it forever.

Give me may names, so Phoebus may not look down upon me.

Give me a bow & arrows: please, Father!

I’m not asking you for a quiver, or a great bow:

The Cyclops will build these for me straightaway,

But let me be a bringer of light, and let me wear my skirt knee-length

And I will be a slayer of wild beasts.

Give me sixty Ocean-maidens, who can join me on my quest,

All of them still young, still girls,

And give me also an entourage of maidens, twenty nymphs of Amnisius

Who can take care of my hunting boots and my hunting dogs

Whenever I want to hunt lynxes & stags

And give me all mountains: and whatever city you want, I guess.

For Diana does not like the cities.

I shall dwell in the mountains: I’ll only enter cities

Whenever women are having difficulties in childbirth

And call upon me to help. That’s something the Fates

Gave me the ability to help with: as soon as I was born,

When she gave birth, my Mother did not have labor pains,

But birthed me from her belly without pain.”


CALLIMACHUS / Καλλίμαχος

MAP:

Name:  Callimachus

Date:  305 – 240 BCE

Works:  Aitia (Causes)

              Hymns

             Pinakes (Table of Contents)

REGION  3 / 4

Map of Roman Empire Divided into Regions


BIO:

Timeline:

 Callimachus is often regarded as one of the best Alexandrian [Greek] poets. Born in raised in Cyrene, Libya, he spent a majority of his career at the famous Library of Alexandria, where he used the resources there to create refined, artful poetry. Although much of his poetry is lost, the fragments that remain are a testament to both his talent as an artist and his erudition as a scholar.

ALEXANDRIAN




Saturday, September 26, 2020

Dangerous Beauty: The Abduction of Hylas, (Vat. Myth. I.49)

TRIGGER WARNING: Abduction

The common denominator in abduction myths is not the victim's gender, but their beauty. 


Hercules cum accessisset comes Argonautis, Hylan Thiodamantis filium secum duxit armigerum admirandae pulchritudinis iuvenem. Ipse vero fregerat remum in mari, dum pro suis remigat viribus, cuius reparandi gratia Mysiam petens silvam fertur ingressus. Hylas vero cum aquatum perrexisset, conspectus a nymphis receptus est. Quem dum Hercules quaerit, relictus ab Argonautis est in Mysia.

--Vatican Mythographers, I.49

While Hercules was travelling with the Argonauts, he brought the handsome youth Hylas along with him as his squire (armiger). Hercules broke an oar by rowing with all of his strength; they landed in Mysia and entered a forest there to replace it. Hylas disembarked in search of fresh water; he was discovered by some nymphs and abducted. Hercules went out looking for him, and the Argonauts left without him.


VATICAN MYTHOGRAPHERS

MAP:

Name:  ???

Date:  10th c. CE (?)

Works:  Mythographi Vaticani*

 

REGION  UNKNOWN

Map of Roman Empire Divided into Regions


BIO:

Timeline:

Little is known about the author or origin of the collection of myths known as the Vatican Mythographers, but the work’s first editor Angelo Mai found the collection on a manuscript dating back to the 10th century CE. This volume is a collection of three different mythographers who have assembled various Greco-Roman myths; although many of these myths are basic summaries in Latin, some of them are either analyzed as allegories or compared to Christian thought. 

 LATE LATIN (10th c. CE ?)

Timeline of Roman Literature with "Byzantine / Late Latin" era highlighted


Tuesday, September 22, 2020

Dangerous Beauty: The Abduction of Ganymede, Vat. Myth. 1.181

 TRIGGER WARNING: abduction

The common denominator in abduction myths is not the victim's gender, but their beauty.

Ganymedes filius Troili filii Priami cum prima forma ceteris Troianis preferretur et assiduis venationibus in Ida silva exerceretur, ab armigero Iovis, scilicet aquila quae quondam sibi fulmina deferebat, in caelum raptus est et factus est pincerna deorum, quod officium prius occupaverat Hebe filia MInois filii Iovis. Vel aliter: Iuppiter, ne infamiam virentis, id est masculini, concubitus subiret, versus in aquilam ex Ida monte rapuit eum et fecit eum pincernam in caelo. 

--Vatican Mythographers 1.181

 

Ganymede, the son of Priam's son Troilius, was the most beautiful youth and the most talented hunter among the Trojans. When he was training on Mt. Ida, he was snatched up by Jupiter's thunderbird, [the eagle that once bore the god's thunderbolt].   The youth was taken up into heaven and assigned to be the Cupbearer of the Gods, a position that had previously been filled by Hebe, the daughter of Jupiter's son Minos.  Others say that Jupiter  turned into an eagle, stole him from Mt. Ida, and made him the Cupbearer in heaven, lest the king of the gods get mocked for being in an affair with a man  

VATICAN MYTHOGRAPHERS

MAP:

Name:  ???

Date:  10th c. CE (?)

Works:  Mythographi Vaticani*

 

REGION  UNKNOWN

Map of Roman Empire Divided into Regions


BIO:

Timeline:

Little is known about the author or origin of the collection of myths known as the Vatican Mythographers, but the work’s first editor Angelo Mai found the collection on a manuscript dating back to the 10th century CE. This volume is a collection of three different mythographers who have assembled various Greco-Roman myths; although many of these myths are basic summaries in Latin, some of them are either analyzed as allegories or compared to Christian thought. 

 LATE LATIN (10th c. CE ?)

Timeline of Roman Literature with "BYZANTINE / LATE LATIN" era highlighted