Sunday, January 10, 2021

Motherless Are We: Bacchus and Minerva, Greek Anthology XVI.183

In signum Bacchi iuxta Minervam erectum

A: Dic, quid tibi commune et Pallidi? Huic enim iacula

et certamina; tibi vero valde placent convivia.

B. Ne temere, o hospes, de diis talia inquire:

tene autem quot rebus similis deae huiusce sim.

Etenim mihi quoque bellorum amica gloria; novit omnis

Eoo domitus Indus ab Oceano.

Et mortalium utique genus remuneravimus, haec quidem olea,

sed ego dulcibus uvis vineae--excultae.

Verum etiam neque ob me mater labores tulit;

solvi autem ego femur patrium, haec vero caput.


Εις άγαλμα Διονύσου πλησίον Αθηνάς εστώς

α Είπε τί σοι ξυνον και Παλλάδι;  τη γάρ άκοντες

και πόλεμοι, πέρι σοι δ εύαδον είλαπίναι.

 β Μή προπετώς ώ ξείνε θεών πέρι τoία μετάλλα.

 ίσθι δ όσοις ίκελος δαίμονι τήδε πέλω

 και γάρ εμοί πολέμων φίλιον κλέος οίδεν άπας μοι

ηώου δμηθείς Ινδός απ Ωκεανού

Και μερόπων δε φυην έγερηραμεν η μεν ελαίη

αυτάρ εγώ γλυκεροίς βότρυσιν ημερίδος

 Και μήν ουδ επ εμοί μήτηρ ώδίνας υπέτλη

λύσα δ εγώ μηρόν πάτριον η δε χάρη.
 


--Anonymous, Greek Anthology XVI.183

 

 A Poem About a Statue of Dionysus Next to Athena

A: Tell me, what on earth do you have in common with Pallas Athena?

She’s all about weapons and warfare; you just really, really like dinner parties.

B: O traveler, don’t be so critical about the matters of the gods,

But think about how the goddess and I are alike.

I am also successful in warfare; all of India

Knows I have conquered it, from sea to shining sea.

Both of us have enriched the human race;

Athena has endowed them with olive oil,

My gift is wine from freshly squeezed grapes.

And no mother has suffered labor pains on my behalf;

I came from my father’s [Jupiter’s] thigh; she came from his head.

 

<Anonymous>

MAP:

Name:  ????

Date: 

Works:  Greek Anthology; Anthologia Graeca; Florilegii Graecii

 

REGION  UNKNOWN

Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans


BIO:

Timeline:

 The Greek Anthology is a modern collection of Greek lyric poetry compiled from various sources over the course of Greco-Roman literature. The current collection was created from two major sources, one from the 10th century CE and one from the 14th century CE. The anthology contains authors spanning the entirety of Greek literature, from archaic poets to Byzantine Christian poets. 

 Byzantine Greek

ARCHAIC: (through 6th c. BCE); GOLDEN AGE: (5th - 4th c. BCE); ALEXANDRIAN: (4th c. BCE - 1st c. BCE); ROMAN: (1st c. BCE - 4th c. CE); POST CONSTANTINOPLE: (4th c. CE - 8th c. CE); BYZANTINE: (post 8th c CE)


 

 

 

Tuesday, January 5, 2021

Punished for her Beauty: Callisto, Ovid, Fasti II.153-192

 TRIGGER WARNING: rape, victim shaming

Tertia nox veniat, Custodem protinus Ursae
     aspicies geminos exseruisse pedes.
inter hamadryadas iaculatricemque Dianam               
155
     Callisto sacri pars fuit una chori.
illa, deae tangens arcus, 'quos tangimus arcus,
     este meae testes virginitatis' ait.
Cynthia laudavit, 'promissa' que 'foedera serva,
     et comitum princeps tu mihi' dixit 'eris.'               
160
foedera servasset, si non formosa fuisset:
     cavit mortales, de Iove crimen habet.
mille feras Phoebe silvis venata redibat
     aut plus aut medium sole tenente diem;
ut tetigit lucum (densa niger ilice lucus,               
165
     in medio gelidae fons erat altus aquae),
'hic' ait 'in silva, virgo Tegeaea, lavemur';
     erubuit falso virginis illa sono.
dixerat et nymphis. nymphae velamina ponunt;
     hanc pudet, et tardae dat mala signa morae.               
170
exuerat tunicas; uteri manifesta tumore
     proditur indicio ponderis ipsa suo.
cui dea 'virgineos, periura Lycaoni, coetus
     desere, nec castas pollue' dixit 'aquas.'
luna novum decies implerat cornibus orbem:               
175
     quae fuerat virgo credita, mater erat.
laesa furit Iuno, formam mutatque puellae:
     quid facis? invito est pectore passa Iovem.
utque ferae vidit turpes in paelice voltus,
     'huius in amplexus, Iuppiter,' inquit 'eas.'               
180
ursa per incultos errabat squalida montes
     quae fuerat summo nuper amata Iovi.
iam tria lustra puer furto conceptus agebat,
     cum mater nato est obvia facta suo.
illa quidem, tamquam cognosceret, adstitit amens,               
185
     et gemuit: gemitus verba parentis erant.
hanc puer ignarus iaculo fixisset acuto
     ni foret in superas raptus uterque domos.
signa propinqua micant: prior est, quam dicimus Arcton,
     Arctophylax formam terga sequentis habet.               
190
saevit adhuc canamque rogat Saturnia Tethyn
     Maenaliam tactis ne lavet Arcton aquis.

--Ovid, Fasti II.153-192

Three days afterwards, you will see the Bear-Guardian (Arctophylax) 

cutting loose with both feet...

Callisto used to take part in a sacred troupe

With the hunter goddess Diana and her hamadryads.

Touching the goddess’ bow, Callisto vowed

“By your sacred bow I touch, I pledge witness to my virginity.”

The moon maiden praised her, and replied,

“Hold true to your pledge, and you shall be

The leader of my companions [comitum].”

She would have kept her vow, if she weren’t so dang pretty.

She was careful around mortals, but Jupiter was the source of her troubles.

Having hunted a thousand wild beasts of the forest,

Diana was returning around noon-time (give or take),

When she happened upon a grove

(it was a shady oak-grove, and there was a deep pool of cold water in the middle of it),

She said, “Hey, chaste Callisto [virgo], let’s bathe here in this forest!”

But Callisto blushed at the sound of the no longer true  word “chaste.”

Diana also told this to the nymphs. They pulled off their clothes, but Callisto felt embarrassed, and gave excuse after excuse.

When she finally took off her dress, her swollen belly provided its own confession.

And so Diana told her, “Descendant of Lycaon, you are a liar! Get out of our chaste group! Don’t sully these pure waters with your presence!”

For ten months the moon waxed and waned, and then,

The supposed virgin became a mother.

Juno was angry, and changed the woman’s shape:

But what had the poor girl done? Jupiter had raped her [passa]

Without her consent [invito...pectore].

When Juno saw her rival’s face transformed into an animal’s,

She said, “Try loving her now, Jupiter!”

Callisto, who had once been loved by Supreme Jupiter

Was now a mangy she-bear, wandering over uncharted mountains.

And fifteen years [tria lustra] later, she met her son face-to-face.

Although she recognized him, she stood there dumbstruck, not knowing what to do, and roared: it was all she could do.

Not recognizing her, her son would have slain her with his javelin, except both were taken into the night sky [as constellations].

Together they twinkle side-by-side: one of them, called The  Big Bear (Arctos), is right next to The Little Bear (the Bear Guardian, Arctophylax).

Juno is still ticked off: she asks the silver-haired Tethys

To keep this Arcadian Momma-Bear from dipping into water.


OVID

MAP:

Name: Publius Ovidius Naso  

Date:  43 BCE – 18 CE

Works:  Ars Amatoria

               Metamorphoses*

              Tristia, etc.

 

REGION  1

Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans


BIO:

Timeline:

Ovid was one of the most famous love poets of Rome’s Golden Age. His most famous work, the Metamorphoses, provides a history of the world through a series of interwoven myths. Most of his poetry is erotic in nature; for this reason, he fell into trouble during the conservative social reforms under the reign of the emperor Augustus. In 8 CE he was banished to Bithynia, where he spent the remainder of his life pining for his native homeland.

 GOLDEN AGE ROME

Early Roman Lit: through 2nd c BCE: Republican Rome: through 1st c. BCE; Golden Age: 70 BCE to 18 CE; Silver Age: 18 CE to 150 CE; Age of Conflict: 150 CE - 410 CE; Byzantine and Late Latin: after 410 CE


 


Sunday, January 3, 2021

M/M: A Love Among the Stars: Ampelus, Ovid, Fasti III.409ff

 TRIGGER WARNING: accidental death

Ampelon intonsum satyro nymphaque creatum
     fertur in Ismariis Bacchus amasse iugis.                410
tradidit huic vitem pendentem frondibus ulmi,
     quae nunc de pueri nomine nomen habet.
dum legit in ramo pictas temerarius uvas,
     decidit: amissum Liber in astra tulit.


--Ovid, Fasti III.409-414

It is said that in the Thracian mountains,

 Bacchus loved the shaggy-haired Ampelus

(the son of a satyr and a nymph).

Bacchus created for him a vine

hanging on the branches of an elm,

the vine that now holds his boyfriend’s [pueri] name.

But while Ampelus was plucking grapes from a branch

Being careless, he fell:

And Bacchus, in grief, turned him into a constellation.

OVID

MAP:

Name: Publius Ovidius Naso  

Date:  43 BCE – 18 CE

Works:  Ars Amatoria

               Fasti*

               Metamorphoses

              Tristia, etc.

 

REGION  1

Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans


BIO:

Timeline:

Ovid was one of the most famous love poets of Rome’s Golden Age. His most famous work, the Metamorphoses, provides a history of the world through a series of interwoven myths. Most of his poetry is erotic in nature; for this reason, he fell into trouble during the conservative social reforms under the reign of the emperor Augustus. In 8 CE he was banished to Bithynia, where he spent the remainder of his life pining for his native homeland.

 GOLDEN AGE ROME

Early Roman Lit: through 2nd c BCE: Republican Rome: through 1st c. BCE; Golden Age: 70 BCE to 18 CE; Silver Age: 18 CE to 150 CE; Age of Conflict: 150 CE - 410 CE; Byzantine and Late Latin: after 410 CE

 



Saturday, January 2, 2021

Challenging Gender Roles: The Rights of Vestal Virgins, Caius, Inst. 130, 144, 145

130. Praeterea exeunt liberi virilis sexus de parentis potestate, si flamines Diales inaugurentur, et feminini sexus, si virgines Vestales capiantur. 

144. Permissum est itaque parentibus liberis, quos in potestate sua habent, testamento tutores dare: Masculini quidem sexus inpuberibus, feminini vero inpuberibus puberibusque, vel cum nuptae sint. Veteres enim voluerunt feminas, etiamsi perfectae aetatis sint, propter animi levitatem in tutela esse. 

145. Itaque si quis filio filiaeque testamento tutorem dederit, et ambo ad pubertatem pervenerint, filius quidem desinit habere tutorem, filia vero nihilo minus in tutela permanet: Tantum enim ex lege Iulia et Papia Poppaea iure liberorum a tutela liberantur feminae. Loquimur autem exceptis virginibus Vestalibus, quas etiam veteres in honorem sacerdotii liberas esse voluerunt: Itaque etiam lege XII tabularum cautum est.’’

--Caius, Institutiones I.130, 144, 145

130. A male child shall be liberated from their parents if he becomes a Flamen Dialis; a female child shall be liberated from their parents if they are chosen to become a Vestal Virgin.

144. It is allowed for parents to provide a guardian for the children under their care, including minor male children, and women of any age, even if they are married. For our ancestors wished for women (despite reaching the age of maturity) to be in the care of a guardian due to the fickleness of their mind.

145. And so if someone leaves their son *and* their daughter in the care of a guardian in their will, when both reach the age of maturity, the son will stop having a guardian, but the daughter will remain in the guardian’s care. This is how it is in the Lex Julia & Papia Popaea, that a woman is only freed from guardianship by the right of motherhood [iure liberorum].  I must add this: this does not apply to Vestal Virgins, whom our ancestors wished to remain free as a perk of their priesthood, as per the Twelve Tables.


CAIUS / GAIUS

MAP:

Name:  Caius / Gaius [?]

Date:  2nd c. CE

Works:  Insitutes

 

REGION UNKNOWN

Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans


BIO:

Timeline:

 Little is known about the life of Caius / Gaius, except that he was an expert on Roman law. His citation of laws from the 2nd century CE serve as an indication of the time period during which he lived. His four volume work, the Institutes, provide crucial insight into primary sources of Roman law.

 AGE OF CONFLICT

Early Roman Lit: through 2nd c BCE: Republican Rome: through 1st c. BCE; Golden Age: 70 BCE to 18 CE; Silver Age: 18 CE to 150 CE; Age of Conflict: 150 CE - 410 CE; Byzantine and Late Latin: after 410 CE


Insights on the Treatment of Women in Early Rome: A Fragment of Naevius

 Desubito famam tollunt si quam solam videre in via.

--Naevius fr. 12, quoted in Nonius

Suddenly, they raise hell if they see a woman alone on the street.

NAEVIUS

MAP:

Name:  Gnaeus Naevius

Date:  3rd c. BCE

Works:  tragedies & comedies [now lost]

 

REGION  1

Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans


BIO:

Timeline:

 Naevius was an Italian poet who wrote comedies, tragedies, and satires during the 3rd century BCE. His works were often considered salacious; he was imprisoned, freed, and later exiled because of his works. Although he wrote dozens of plays and a history of the First Punic War, these are no longer extant; his works only survive in fragments and quotes preserved by other authors.

 EARLY ROMAN LITERATURE

Early Roman Lit: through 2nd c BCE: Republican Rome: through 1st c. BCE; Golden Age: 70 BCE to 18 CE; Silver Age: 18 CE to 150 CE; Age of Conflict: 150 CE - 410 CE; Byzantine and Late Latin: after 410 CE



Challenging Gender Roles: Two Fragments of Accius on Achilles, Accius, fr. 28 & 304

1) Achilles on Skyros: 

...cum virginali mundo clam pater

--Accius fr. 28, quoted in Festus

[Achilles], a father hiding in a maiden’s dress...

This fragment of early Latin poetry refers to the period of time prior to the Trojan War when Achilles lived as a maiden on the island of Skyros and impregnate the princess Deidamia. Together they will have a son named Neoptolemus / Pyrrhus, who will fight in the Trojan War after the death of his father.

2) On the Death of Patroclus:

Achilles: Mors amici subigit, quod mi est senium multo accerrimum.

--Accius fr. 304, quoted in Nonius

The death of a friend has overpowered me; it is by far the most bitterest grief.




 

ACCIUS

MAP:

Name: Lucius Accius

Date:  170 – 86 BCE

Works:  [lost]

 

REGION  1

Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans


BIO:

Timeline:

 Accius was a freeborn child of a freedman parent; he was born in Umbria (modern Italy) but later moved to Rome. He wrote several tragedies based on Greek myths, but these are no longer extant; only fragments remain of his writings.

 REPUBLICAN ROMAN LITERATURE

Early Roman Lit: through 2nd c BCE: Republican Rome: through 1st c. BCE; Golden Age: 70 BCE to 18 CE; Silver Age: 18 CE to 150 CE; Age of Conflict: 150 CE - 410 CE; Byzantine and Late Latin: after 410 CE





Thursday, December 31, 2020

M/M: You Cannot Compare These Two, Lucilius fr. 311

 

Huncin ego umquam Hyacintho hominem cortinipotentis

deliciis contendi?

--Lucilius, fr. 311-312, preserved in Nonius 258,38

Have I ever compared this man to the Apollo’s love-slave* Hyacinthus?

* Note that the author refers to Hyacinthus here with deliciae, which sometimes is used to indicate sexual subservience or even slavery when referring to a male partner


LUCILIUS

MAP:

Name:  Gaius Lucilius

Date:  2nd century BCE

Works:  Satires

 

REGION  1

Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans


BIO:

Timeline:

 Lucilius was an Italian poet and one of Rome’s earliest satirists. Although his works and his style deeply influenced the genre of Roman satire, most of his writings are lost to history and only fragments remain.  

 REPUBLICAN ROME

Early Roman Lit: through 2nd c BCE: Republican Rome: through 1st c. BCE; Golden Age: 70 BCE to 18 CE; Silver Age: 18 CE to 150 CE; Age of Conflict: 150 CE - 410 CE; Byzantine and Late Latin: after 410 CE