Wednesday, July 28, 2021

Challenging Gender Roles: the Olympic Gold Medalist Cynisca, Pausanias, Desc. Graec. III.xv.1

 Ad platanetum est etiam Cyniscae Archidami regis filiae monumentum heroicum. Ea prima feminarum omnium equos alere instituit, & prima ludis Olympicis de quadrigis palmam meruit.

πρὸς δὲ τῷ Πλατανιστᾷ καὶ Κυνίσκας ἐστὶν ἡρῷον, θυγατρὸς Ἀρχιδάμου βασιλεύοντος Σπαρτιατῶν: πρώτη δὲ ἱπποτρόφησε γυναικῶν καὶ Ὀλυμπίασι πρώτη νίκην ἀνείλετο ἅρματι.  

–Pausanias, Descriptio Graeciae III.xv.1; Translated into Latin by Romulus Amaseus (1696)

By the grove of plane trees [in Sparta] is a monument to the hero Cynisca, the daughter of king Archidamus.  She was the first of all women to train horses, and was the first woman to win the chariot-race in the Olympic games.

PAUSANIAS

MAP:

Name:  Pausanias

Date:  110 – 180 CE

Works:  Description of Greece

 

REGION  5

Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans


BIO:

Timeline:

 Pausanias was a Greek writer who lived during the era of the “Five Good Emperors.” His work, the Description of Greece, is an important source for geographical, historical, archaeological, and cultural information about ancient Greece.

 ROMAN GREEK

ARCHAIC: (through 6th c. BCE); GOLDEN AGE: (5th - 4th c. BCE); HELLENISTIC: (4th c. BCE - 1st c. BCE); ROMAN: (1st c. BCE - 4th c. CE); POST CONSTANTINOPLE: (4th c. CE - 8th c. CE); BYZANTINE: (post 8th c CE)



Tiresias and Their Daughter: Pausanias, Desc. Graec. IX.xxxiii.1-2

Mons Tilphussius & Tilphussa item fons, qui dicitur, ab Haliarto stadia abest quinquaginta, ut maxime. Traditum est Graecorum monumentis, Argivos, quum Polynicis filios secuti Thebas cepissent, dum ad Delphicum Apollinem cum reliqua praeda vatem etiam Tiresiam pertraherent, sitientem illum in via hausta de Tilphussa fonte aqua, animam statim egisse. Est eius sepulchrum ad ipsum fontem. Vatis filiam Manto ab Argivis Apollini aiunt sacratam: sed transmisisse eam classe (iubente deo) Colophonem in Ioniam, ibique Rhacio Cretensi nuptam. Quae de Tiresia dicuntur alia, de annorum scilicet quem vixisse scripserunt numero, & quod vir evaserit ex femina, quodque in Odyssea Homerus eum unum sapientem esse apud inferos dixerit, omnia haec omnes iam toties audita norunt.

τὸ δὲ ὄρος τὸ Τιλφούσιον καὶ ἡ Τιλφοῦσα καλουμένη πηγὴ σταδίους μάλιστα Ἁλιάρτου πεντήκοντα ἀπέχουσι. λέγεται δὲ ὑπὸ Ἑλλήνων Ἀργείους μετὰ τῶν Πολυνείκους παίδων ἑλόντας Θήβας ἐς Δελφοὺς τῷ θεῷ καὶ ἄλλα τῶν λαφύρων καὶ Τειρεσίαν ἄγειν, καὶ—εἴχετο γὰρ δίψῃ—καθ᾽ ὁδόν φασιν αὐτὸν πιόντα ἀπὸ τῆς Τιλφούσης ἀφεῖναι τὴν ψυχήν: καὶ ἔστι τάφος αὐτῷ πρὸς τῇ πηγῇ. [2] τὴν δὲ θυγατέρα τοῦ Τειρεσίου δοθῆναι μέν φασι τῷ Ἀπόλλωνι ὑπὸ τῶν Ἀργείων, προστάξαντος δὲ τοῦ θεοῦ ναυσὶν ἐς τὴν νῦν Ἰωνίαν καὶ Ἰωνίας ἐς τὴν Κολοφωνίαν περαιωθῆναι. καὶ ἡ μὲν αὐτόθι συνῴκησεν ἡ Μαντὼ Ῥακίῳ Κρητί: τὰ δὲ ἄλλα ἐς Τειρεσίαν, ἐτῶν τε ἀριθμὸν ὧν γεγράφασιν αὐτὸν βιῶναι καὶ ὡς ἐκ γυναικὸς ἐς ἄνδρα ἠλλάγη καὶ ὅτι Ὅμηρος ἐποίησεν ἐν Ὀδυσσείᾳ συνετὸν εἶναι γνώμην Τειρεσίαν τῶν ἐν Ἅιδου μόνον, ταῦτα μὲν καὶ οἱ πάντες ἴσασιν ἀκοῇ. 


--Pausanias, Descriptio Graeciae IX.xxxiii.1-2; translated into Latin by Romulus Amaseus (1696)

Mount Tilphussius and the Tilphussan spring are no more than fifty stadia from Haliartus. It is said that after they had captured Thebes, the Argives and the children of Polynices were transporting the prophet Tiresias and other spoils of war to Delphi, to dedicate them to Apollo.  Being thirsty, Tiresias drank the water from this spring and died. Therefore his tomb is near this spring.

They say that Manto, Tiresias’ daughter, was dedicated to Apollo by the Argives, and under the god’s command, she was sent by ship to Colophon in Ionia, where she was married to the Cretan Rhacius.

The rest of the myth of Tiresias—how long he lived, that he changed from woman to man, and that in the Odyssey, Homer states that he alone retained wisdom in the Underworld—everybody already knows about.

 

PAUSANIAS

MAP:

Name:  Pausanias

Date:  110 – 180 CE

Works:  Description of Greece

 

REGION  5

Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans


BIO:

Timeline:

 Pausanias was a Greek writer who lived during the era of the “Five Good Emperors.” His work, the Description of Greece, is an important source for geographical, historical, archaeological, and cultural information about ancient Greece.

 ROMAN GREEK

ARCHAIC: (through 6th c. BCE); GOLDEN AGE: (5th - 4th c. BCE); HELLENISTIC: (4th c. BCE - 1st c. BCE); ROMAN: (1st c. BCE - 4th c. CE); POST CONSTANTINOPLE: (4th c. CE - 8th c. CE); BYZANTINE: (post 8th c CE)


Monday, July 26, 2021

In Praise of Sappho: Greek Anthology, VII.407

 

Dulcissimum amantibus iuvenibus levamentum amorum,

O Sappho, cum Musis sane te Pieria

aut Helicon hederosus, paria spirantem illis,

ornat, te Eresi Musam in Aeolide;

aut etiam Hymen Hymenaeus habens bene-fulgidam picam,

tecum sponsalibus stat super thalamis;

aut Cinyrae novum germen ploranti Veneri

congemens, caelicolarum sacrum lucum vides:

ubique, veneranda, salve aeque ac dii! tuas enim cautiones

immortalium ducimus nunc adhuc filias.


ἥδιστον φιλέουσι νέοις προσανάκλιμ᾽ ἐρώτων,

Σαπφώ, σὺν Μούσαις ἦ ῥά σε Πιερίη

ἢ Ἑλικὼν εὔκισσος, ἴσα πνείουσαν ἐκείναις,

κοσμεῖ, τὴν Ἐρέσῳ Μοῦσαν ἐν Αἰολίδι,

ἢ καὶ Ὑμὴν Ὑμέναιος ἔχων εὐφεγγέα πεύκην

σὺν σοὶ νυμφιδίων ἵσταθ᾽ ὑπὲρ θαλάμων

ἢ Κινύρεω νέον ἔρνος ὀδυρομένῃ Ἀφροδίτῃ

σύνθρηνος, μακάρων ἱερὸν ἄλσος ὁρῇς:

πάντῃ, πότνια, χαῖρε θεοῖς ἴσα: σὰς γὰρ ἀοιδὰς

ἀθανάτων ἄγομεν νῦν ἔτι θυγατέρας.

--Dioscorides, Greek Anthology VII.407; Translated into Latin by Hugo Grottius

O Sappho, sweetest support of young people in love,

Whom Pieria & ivy-covered Helicon revere alongside the Muses,

(you breathe* the same inspirational air)

O Muse of Aeolian Eresus.

O Sappho, you who stand beside Hymen & Hymenaeus,

Presiding over wedding ceremonies with a brilliantly shining pine torch**.

O Sappho, you who watch over the glade sacred to the gods

Grieving with Aphrodite as she mourns the Cinyras’ sprout,***

Hail, my Queen! Equal in every way to the gods,

We count your songs among the children of the Divine.

 

*  πνέω can refer to both inhaling and exhaling; this is a reference to the literal meaning of inspiration (in + spiro / ἐμ + πνέω)

** torches are symbols of wedding ceremonies, similar to modern bouquets

*** a reference to Venus' lover Adonis, whose death is recounted in Sappho's poetry

<Anonymous>

MAP:

Name:  ????

Date: 

Works:  Greek Anthology; Anthologia Graeca; Florilegii Graecii

 

REGION  UNKNOWN

Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans


BIO:

Timeline:

 The Greek Anthology is a modern collection of Greek lyric poetry compiled from various sources over the course of Greco-Roman literature. The current collection was created from two major sources, one from the 10th century CE and one from the 14th century CE. The anthology contains authors spanning the entirety of Greek literature, from archaic poets to Byzantine Christian poets. 

 Byzantine Greek

ARCHAIC: (through 6th c. BCE); GOLDEN AGE: (5th - 4th c. BCE); HELLENISTIC: (4th c. BCE - 1st c. BCE); ROMAN: (1st c. BCE - 4th c. CE); POST CONSTANTINOPLE: (4th c. CE - 8th c. CE); BYZANTINE: (post 8th c CE)


 

 

Sunday, July 25, 2021

Challenging Gender Roles: The Poet Corinna, Pausanias, Descriptio Graeciae, IX.xxii.3

Trigger Warning: misogyny, sexism

Corinnae quidem, quae sola apud Tanagraeos cantica fecit, in celebri urbis loco est monumentum: in gymnasio ipsa picta est, taenia redimita: victoriae illud insigne, quod Thebis carmine Pindarum vicerit. Vicisse ea arbitror linguae causa. Neque enim Dorica, uti Pindarus, cecinit, sed ea quam essent facile Aeolenses percepturi. Quod autem fuerit ea sui temporis feminarum formosissima, non est difficile ex ipsius imagine coniicere.

[3] Κορίννης δέ, ἣ μόνη δὴ ἐν Τανάγρᾳ ᾁσματα ἐποίησε, ταύτης ἔστι μὲν μνῆμα ἐν περιφανεῖ τῆς πόλεως, ἔστι δὲ ἐν τῷ γυμνασίῳ γραφή, ταινίᾳ τὴν κεφαλὴν ἡ Κόριννα ἀναδουμένη τῆς νίκης ἕνεκα ἣν Πίνδαρον ᾁσματι ἐνίκησεν ἐν Θήβαις. φαίνεται δέ μοι νικῆσαι τῆς διαλέκτου τε ἕνεκα, ὅτι ᾖδεν οὐ τῇ φωνῇ τῇ Δωρίδι ὥσπερ ὁ Πίνδαρος ἀλλὰ ὁποίᾳ συνήσειν ἔμελλον Αἰολεῖς, καὶ ὅτι ἦν γυναικῶν τότε δὴ καλλίστη τὸ εἶδος, εἴ τι τῇ εἰκόνι δεῖ τεκμαίρεσθαι.

--Pausanias, Descriptio Graeciae IX.xxii.3; Translated into Latin by Romulus Amaseus (1696)

There is a famous monument in the heart of the city for Corinna, the only famous poet from Tanagra; it lies in the Gymnasium. Corinna is depicted with a ribbon in her hair, the trophy of her victory over the poet Pindar in Thebes. It seems to me that she won because of her dialect; she didn’t use the Doric tongue (which Pindar used), but rather the Aeolian dialect. The fact that she was super pretty [if the she looks anything like the statue of her] probably helped her win, too.

PAUSANIAS

MAP:

Name:  Pausanias

Date:  110 – 180 CE

Works:  Description of Greece

 

REGION  5

Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans


BIO:

Timeline:

 Pausanias was a Greek writer who lived during the era of the “Five Good Emperors.” His work, the Description of Greece, is an important source for geographical, historical, archaeological, and cultural information about ancient Greece.

 ROMAN GREEK

ARCHAIC: (through 6th c. BCE); GOLDEN AGE: (5th - 4th c. BCE); HELLENISTIC: (4th c. BCE - 1st c. BCE); ROMAN: (1st c. BCE - 4th c. CE); POST CONSTANTINOPLE: (4th c. CE - 8th c. CE); BYZANTINE: (post 8th c CE)



M/M: The Lion of Chaeronea: Pausanias, Descriptio Graeciae, IX.xl.9

The Lion of Chaeronea was a memorial dedicated to the Theban Band (an army of paired lovers) who fell at the Battle of Chaeronea in 338 BCE


Proximo urbi loco est commune Thebanis sepulcrum, iis qui in acie contra Philippum stantes ceciderunt. Nulla est apposita inscriptio. Insigne tumuli leo est, ad eorum virorum animi magnitudinem significanda. Inscriptum (ut opinor) propterea nihil est,quod illorum hominum virtutem dii non fortunassent.

προσιόντων δὲ τῇ πόλει πολυάνδριον Θηβαίων ἐστὶν ἐν τῷ πρὸς Φίλιππον ἀγῶνι ἀποθανόντων. ἐπιγέγραπται μὲν δὴ ἐπίγραμμα οὐδέν, ἐπίθημα δ᾽ ἔπεστιν αὐτῷ λέων: φέροι δ᾽ ἂν ἐς τῶν ἀνδρῶν μάλιστα τὸν θυμόν: ἐπίγραμμα δὲ ἄπεστιν ἐμοὶ δοκεῖν ὅτι οὐδὲ ἐοικότα τῇ τόλμῃ σφίσι τὰ ἐκ τοῦ δαίμονος ἠκολούθησε.

--Pausanias, Descriptio Graeciae IX.xl.10; Translated into Latin by Roulus Amaseus (1696)

Next to the city is a memorial for the soldiers who fell in the battle against Philipp. The memorial has no inscription; it is a lion, signifying the courage of these men. I think the reason there is no inscription is that victory did not accompany their daring effort.

PAUSANIAS

MAP:

Name:  Pausanias

Date:  110 – 180 CE

Works:  Description of Greece

 

REGION  5

Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans


BIO:

Timeline:

 Pausanias was a Greek writer who lived during the era of the “Five Good Emperors.” His work, the Description of Greece, is an important source for geographical, historical, archaeological, and cultural information about ancient Greece.

 ROMAN GREEK

ARCHAIC: (through 6th c. BCE); GOLDEN AGE: (5th - 4th c. BCE); HELLENISTIC: (4th c. BCE - 1st c. BCE); ROMAN: (1st c. BCE - 4th c. CE); POST CONSTANTINOPLE: (4th c. CE - 8th c. CE); BYZANTINE: (post 8th c CE)



Saturday, July 24, 2021

Challenging Gender Roles: The Warrior Poet Telesilla Saves the Day, Pausanias, Desc. Graec.II.xx.8-9

Supra theatrum Veneris fanum: in cuius fronte e pavimento columna surgit, cui insistit Telesilla quae cantica fecit. Ad pedes eius carminum volumina iacent: ipsa galea aspicit, quam capiti iam ipositura manu tenet. Fuit Telesilla haec, & aliis de causis inter feminas illustris & honorem praecipuum ex poetica meruit. Haec illa Telesilla est quae tale virtutis muliebris documentum dedit. Quo tempore Argivi maiore quam dicendo explicari possit clade a Cleomene Anaxandridae filio Lacedaemoniorum rege afflicti sunt, aliis in prelio caesis, ii qui supplices in Argi lucum confugerant, parti ad pacis conditiones evocati, nihilo minus violati sunt; partim vero ubi se dolo circumvento  senserunt, seipsos & lucum simul cremarunt. Quare Cleomenes consumta Argivorum militari aetate & robore, ad Argos oppugnandum confestim Lacedaemoniorum copias duxit. Ibi Telesilla ad murorum praesidia servitiis, & iis omnibus qui per aetatem arma ferre non possent, armandatis, e domibus & templis aris, quae reliqua fortuna belli fecerat, refixis, omnes quae integra aetate erant feminas obarmavit, & ibi eas collocavit, qua ad oppidum Lacedaemonios accessuros exploratum habebat. neque vero illae hoste approprinquante bellico clamore exterritae sunt: quin fortiter & praesenti animo pugnantes, hostium impressionem sustinuerunt. At Lacedaemonii quum cogitare coepissent, si feminas violassent, invidiosam fore eam victoriam: sin victi essent, se turpissime discessuros, omnem ab illis belli ira abstinuerunt. 

ὑπὲρ δὲ τὸ θέατρον Ἀφροδίτης ἐστὶν ἱερόν, ἔμπροσθεν δὲ τοῦ ἕδους Τελέσιλλα ἡ ποιήσασα τὰ ᾁσματα ἐπείργασται στήλῃ: καὶ βιβλία μὲν ἐκεῖνα ἔρριπταί οἱ πρὸς τοῖς ποσίν, αὐτὴ δὲ ἐς κράνος ὁρᾷ κατέχουσα τῇ χειρὶ καὶ ἐπιτίθεσθαι τῇ κεφαλῇ μέλλουσα. ἦν δὲ ἡ Τελέσιλλα καὶ ἄλλως ἐν ταῖς γυναιξὶν εὐδόκιμος καὶ μᾶλλον ἐτιμᾶτο ἔτι ἐπὶ τῇ ποιήσει. συμβάντος δὲ Ἀργείοις ἀτυχῆσαι λόγου μειζόνως πρὸς Κλεομένην τὸν Ἀναξανδρίδου καὶ Λακεδαιμονίους, καὶ τῶν μὲν ἐν αὐτῇ πεπτωκότων τῇ μάχῃ, ὅσοι δὲ ἐς τὸ ἄλσος τοῦ Ἄργου κατέφευγον διαφθαρέντων καὶ τούτων, τὰ μὲν πρῶτα ἐξιόντων κατὰ ὁμολογίαν, ὡς δὲ ἔγνωσαν ἀπατώμενοι συγκατακαυθέντων τῷ ἄλσει τῶν λοιπῶν, οὕτω τοὺς Λακεδαιμονίους Κλεομένης ἦγεν ἐπὶ ἔρημον ἀνδρῶν τὸ Ἄργος. [9] Τελέσιλλα δὲ οἰκέτας μὲν καὶ ὅσοι διὰ νεότητα ἢ γῆρας ὅπλα ἀδύνατοι φέρειν ἦσαν, τούτους μὲν πάντας ἀνεβίβασεν ἐπὶ τὸ τεῖχος, αὐτὴ δὲ ὁπόσα ἐν ταῖς οἰκίαις ὑπελείπετο καὶ τὰ ἐκ τῶν ἱερῶν ὅπλα ἀθροίσασα τὰς ἀκμαζούσας ἡλικίᾳ τῶν γυναικῶν ὥπλιζεν, ὁπλίσασα δὲ ἔτασσε κατὰ τοῦτο ᾗ τοὺς πολεμίους προσιόντας ἠπίστατο. ὡς δὲ ἐγγὺς ἐγίνοντο οἱ Λακεδαιμόνιοι καὶ αἱ γυναῖκες οὔτε τῷ ἀλαλαγμῷ κατεπλάγησαν δεξάμεναί τε ἐμάχοντο ἐρρωμένως, ἐνταῦθα οἱ Λακεδαιμόνιοι, φρονήσαντες ὡς καὶ διαφθείρασί σφισι τὰς γυναῖκας ἐπιφθόνως τὸ κατόρθωμα ἕξει καὶ σφαλεῖσι μετὰ ὀνειδῶν γενήσοιτο ἡ συμφορά, ὑπείκουσι ταῖς γυναιξί. 

--Pausanias, Descriptio Graeciae, II.xx.8-9; Translated into Latin by Romulus Amaseus (1696)

By the theater is a shrine to Venus, and in front of that is a column that depicts the poet Telesilla. [In the portrait,] there are books of her poetry at her feet; she is staring at a helmet in her hands as she is about to put it on. Telesilla was a famous woman revered for her poetry. There was a time when the Argives were overcome by a loss of unimaginable magnitude by Anaxandrides’ son Cleomenes and his Lacedaemonian troops. Some Argives fell in battle; the remaining retreated to a glade in Argos. Of these, some were killed as they surrendered under the premise of negotiating peace; when the others recognized that they had been betrayed, they set the glade on fire and burned themselves to death. Cleomenes then marched his Lacedaemonian troops against the now defenseless Argos.

Telesilla assembled along the city walls the slaves and citizens too old or too young to bear arms, and armed them with weapons from their homes and from the temples. She also armed the strongest of the women, and stationed them where she reckoned the Lacedaemonians would attack. These women held their own against the Lacedaemonians and fought bravely against them; the Lacedaemonians, thinking that a victory against women would be shameful, and a loss against women would be even more so, retreated. 

PAUSANIAS

MAP:

Name:  Pausanias

Date:  110 – 180 CE

Works:  Description of Greece

 

REGION  5

Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans


BIO:

Timeline:

 Pausanias was a Greek writer who lived during the era of the “Five Good Emperors.” His work, the Description of Greece, is an important source for geographical, historical, archaeological, and cultural information about ancient Greece.

 ROMAN GREEK

ARCHAIC: (through 6th c. BCE); GOLDEN AGE: (5th - 4th c. BCE); HELLENISTIC: (4th c. BCE - 1st c. BCE); ROMAN: (1st c. BCE - 4th c. CE); POST CONSTANTINOPLE: (4th c. CE - 8th c. CE); BYZANTINE: (post 8th c CE)



Friday, July 23, 2021

Outed and Executed: The Tragic tale of Daphne and Leucippos, Pausanias VIII.xx.1-4

 TRIGGER WARNING: transphobia, murder

Unlike the neutral version of this story by Parthenius of Nicaea, the author's bias is evident in this version of the myth.

Ladon quidem ipse aquae pulchritudine omnibus Graeciae fluminibus antecellit: celebratur vero maxime Daphnes causa, & ob ea quae de illa poeta decantarunt. Ego sane de Daphne quae commemorant Syri Orontis accolae, praetereo. nam longe diversa ab Arcadibus & Eleis tradita sunt. Oenomao narrant Pisae regi filium fuisse Leucippum nomine, qui puellae amore captus, quum eam si uxorem sibi palam peteret, operam se lusurum pro  certo haberet, quod illa omnino a marum consuetudine abhorrebat, ad ea fallenda huiusmodi excogitasse astum dicitur. Alebat adolescens Alpheo comam: eam ille quum, quo virgines more solent, religassent, cum muliebri veste ad Daphnen venit, filiam se Oenomai simulans, quae socia venationis esse cuperet. quum itaque virgo esse ex corporis habitu facile crederetur, anteiret vero ceteras comites generis dignitate, ac venandi peritia, & in primis obsequentem se illis maxime praeberet, miro sibi Daphnen amore devinxit. At qui de Apollinis amore fabulam vulgarunt, hoc amplius addunt: Apollinem graviter ferentem Leucippi in amore felicitatem, effecisse ut Daphne cum suo comitatu virginum natandi causa in Ladonem descendens, ipsum etiam Leucippum recusantem & invitum illuc pertraheret: ac mox veste detracta, quum virginis ementitum habitum deprehendissent, impetu facto ipsae Daphnes comites illu iaculis & pugiunculis transfixum interemerint. Haec in vulgus de Daphne prodita.

ὁ δὲ Λάδων ποταμῶν τῶν ἐν Ἑλλάδι ὕδωρ παρέχεται κάλλιστον, ἔχει δὲ καὶ ἄλλως ἐς ἀνθρώπους φήμην Δάφνης τε εἵνεκα καὶ †τὰ ᾀδόμενα ἐς τὴν Δάφνην. [2] τοῦ λόγου δὲ τοῦ ἐς Δάφνην τὰ μὲν Σύροις τοῖς οἰκοῦσιν ἐπὶ Ὀρόντῃ ποταμῷ παρίημι, λέγεται δὲ καὶ ἄλλα τοιάδε ὑπὸ Ἀρκάδων καὶ Ἠλείων. Οἰνομάῳ τῷ δυναστεύσαντι ἐν Πίσῃ Λεύκιππος ἦν υἱός. οὗτος ἐρασθεὶς Δάφνης ὁ Λεύκιππος ἐκ μὲν τοῦ εὐθέος μνώμενος γυναῖκα ἕξειν ἀπεγίνωσκεν αὐτὴν ἅτε ἅπαν τὸ ἄρσεν γένος φεύγουσαν: παρέστη δέ οἱ τοιόνδε ἐς αὐτὴν σόφισμα. [3] ἔτρεφεν ὁ Λεύκιππος κόμην τῷ Ἀλφειῷ: ταύτην οἷα δὴ παρθένος πλεξάμενος τὴν κόμην καὶ ἐσθῆτα ἐνδὺς γυναικείαν ἀφίκετο ὡς τὴν Δάφνην, ἐλθὼν δὲ Οἰνομάου τε ἔλεγεν εἶναι θυγάτηρ καὶ ὡς συνθηρᾶν ἐθέλοι τῇ Δάφνῃ. ἅτε δὲ εἶναι παρθένος νομιζόμενος, καὶ τὰς ἄλλας ὑπερβεβλημένος παρθένους γένους τε ἀξιώματι καὶ σοφίᾳ τῇ ἐς τὰ κυνηγέσια, πρὸς δὲ καὶ τῇ θεραπείᾳ περισσῇ χρώμενος, ἐς φιλίαν ἰσχυρὰν ἐπάγεται τὴν Δάφνην. [4] οἱ δὲ τὸν Ἀπόλλωνος ἔρωτα ἐς αὐτὴν ᾁδοντες καὶ τάδε ἐπιλέγουσιν, Ἀπόλλωνα Λευκίππῳ νεμεσῆσαι τῆς ἐς τὸν ἔρωτα εὐδαιμονίας. αὐτίκα δὲ ἐπεθύμησεν ἐν τῷ Λάδωνι ἡ Δάφνη καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ παρθένοι νήχεσθαι, καὶ τὸν Λεύκιππον ἀποδύουσιν ἄκοντα: ἰδοῦσαι δὲ οὐ παρθένον τοῖς τε ἀκοντίοις αὐτὸν καὶ ἐγχειριδίοις τύπτουσαι διέφθειραν.

--Pausanias,Descriptio Graeciae VIII.xx.1-4; Translated into Latin by Romulus Amaseus (1696) 


The Ladon River is the foremost in beauty of all the rivers in Greece, and it is famous because of the myth of Daphne. I won’t mention the version that the Syrians inhabitants of the Orontes River tell, but instead I’ll stick to the Arcadian and Elian version of the myth. They say that Oenomaus, the prince of Pisa, had a son named Leucippus. Leucippus was in love with Daphne, but could not woo her outright, as she avoided men, so he constructed a plan.  Leucippus was growing his hair long in order to sacrifice it to the river god Alpheus, so he styled it like a girl would, put on women’s clothes, and introduced herself to Daphne. She told her she was Oenomaus’ daughter, and that she wished to accompany Daphne on a hunt. Leucippus was accepted as a girl, and surpassed Daphne’s other companions in nobility and hunting skill, was the most caring of her friends, and so she shared a deep friendship (φιλία) with Daphne.

Those who tell the story of Apollo’s love for Daphne add this to the tale: that Apollo grew jealous of Leucippus’ love for Daphne and their happiness together. He plotted to make Daphne and her companions come to the Ladon to bathe, and forced Leucippus to take off her clothes and join them. When her clothes were taken from her, they saw that she was not a girl, so they killed her with javelins and daggers.

PAUSANIAS

MAP:

Name:  Pausanias

Date:  110 – 180 CE

Works:  Description of Greece

 

REGION  5

Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans


BIO:

Timeline:

 Pausanias was a Greek writer who lived during the era of the “Five Good Emperors.” His work, the Description of Greece, is an important source for geographical, historical, archaeological, and cultural information about ancient Greece.

 ROMAN GREEK

ARCHAIC: (through 6th c. BCE); GOLDEN AGE: (5th - 4th c. BCE); HELLENISTIC: (4th c. BCE - 1st c. BCE); ROMAN: (1st c. BCE - 4th c. CE); POST CONSTANTINOPLE: (4th c. CE - 8th c. CE); BYZANTINE: (post 8th c CE)



Tuesday, July 20, 2021

M/M: We Both Go Down Together: The Toxic Relationship of Meles & Timagoras

 Trigger Warning: toxic relationship, suicide

 

In primo Academiae aditu, Amoris est ara, cum inscriptione, Charmum Atheniensium primum Amori dedicasse. Eam enim aram quae intra urbem est, quam appellant Anterotis, inquilinorum donum fuisse dicunt, ac dedicationis huiusmodi cuasa extitisse: Meles Atheniensis amatorem suum Timagoram inquilinum hominem fastidiens, per contemptum, ut de summo saxo se abiiceret, iussit. Timagoras, qui semper omnia quae puer imperaret facienda putasset, aniam etiam ipsam facile profudit: unde enim iussus erat, impigre se praecipitem dedit. Meletem vero re cognita suae in illum acerbitatis adeo poenituit, ut ex eode seipsum etiam saxo deicerit. Ex eo tam atroci rei eventu ab iniquilinis, ut in eo ipso loco Anteros genius, Timagorae Amoris vindex, coleretur, institutum.

 

πρὸ δὲ τῆς ἐσόδου τῆς ἐς Ἀκαδημίαν ἐστὶ βωμὸς Ἔρωτος ἔχων ἐπίγραμμα ὡς Χάρμος Ἀθηναίων πρῶτος Ἔρωτι ἀναθείη. τὸν δὲ ἐν πόλει βωμὸν καλούμενον Ἀντέρωτος ἀνάθημα εἶναι λέγουσι μετοίκων, ὅτι Μέλης Ἀθηναῖος μέτοικον ἄνδρα Τιμαγόραν ἐρασθέντα ἀτιμάζων ἀφεῖναι κατὰ τῆς πέτρας αὑτὸν ἐκέλευσεν ἐς τὸ ὑψηλότατον αὐτῆς ἀνελθόντα: Τιμαγόρας δὲ ἄρα καὶ ψυχῆς εἶχεν ἀφειδῶς καὶ πάντα ὁμοίως κελεύοντι ἤθελε χαρίζεσθαι τῷ μειρακίῳ καὶ δὴ καὶ φέρων ἑαυτὸν ἀφῆκε: Μέλητα δέ, ὡς ἀποθανόντα εἶδε Τιμαγόραν, ἐς τοσοῦτο μετανοίας ἐλθεῖν ὡς πεσεῖν τε ἀπὸ τῆς πέτρας τῆς αὐτῆς καὶ οὕτως ἀφεὶς αὑτὸν ἐτελεύτησε. καὶ τὸ ἐντεῦθεν δαίμονα Ἀντέρωτα τὸν ἀλάστορα τὸν Τιμαγόρου κατέστη τοῖς μετοίκοις νομίζειν.

 

--Pausanias, Descriptio Graeciae, I.xxx.1; Translated into Latin by Romulus Amaseus (1696)

In front of the entrance to the Academy, there is an altar to Love with the inscription “Charmos the Athenian first dedicated this to Love [Eros].” 

In the city there is also an altar to “Avenger of Love” [Anteros], dedicated by local immigrants.

Meles the Athenian, dishonoring the love that the immigrant Timagoras bore for him, ordered his lover to climb the tallest point of the peak and throw himself off it. Timagoras, who cherished every one of his lover’s commands, complied with his request, and without hesitation took his own life.  Meles was so overcome by the news of Timagoras’ death that he too threw himself off of the cliff. And so the local immigrants dedicated that spot to the worship of Anteros, the Avenger of Timagoras’ death.

PAUSANIAS

MAP:

Name:  Pausanias

Date:  110 – 180 CE

Works:  Description of Greece

 

REGION  5

Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans


BIO:

Timeline:

 Pausanias was a Greek writer who lived during the era of the “Five Good Emperors.” His work, the Description of Greece, is an important source for geographical, historical, archaeological, and cultural information about ancient Greece.

 ROMAN GREEK

ARCHAIC: (through 6th c. BCE); GOLDEN AGE: (5th - 4th c. BCE); HELLENISTIC: (4th c. BCE - 1st c. BCE); ROMAN: (1st c. BCE - 4th c. CE); POST CONSTANTINOPLE: (4th c. CE - 8th c. CE); BYZANTINE: (post 8th c CE)



Monday, July 19, 2021

Challenging Gender Roles: Belistiche the Olympic Gold Medalist

In the fifth book of his Description of Greece, Pausanias outlines the evolution of the Olympic games: 

Receptae deinde pullorum bigae & pullus ite desultorius. Bigarum palmam Belistiche, femina e maritima Macedoniae ora; desultorii, Tlepolemus Lycius abstulit: hic tricesima prima supra centesimam Olympiade; illa Olympiade ante hanc tertia.

προσέθεσαν δὲ ὕστερον καὶ συνωρίδα πώλων καὶ πῶλον κέλητα: ἐπὶ μὲν δὴ τῇ συνωρίδι Βελιστίχην ἐκ Μακεδονίας τῆς ἐπὶ θαλάσσῃ γυναῖκα, Τληπόλεμον δὲ Λύκιον ἀναγορευθῆναι λέγουσιν ἐπὶ τῷ κέλητι, τοῦτον μὲν ἐπὶ τῆς πρώτης καὶ τριακοστῆς τε καὶ ἑκατοστῆς Ὀλυμπιάδος, τῆς δὲ Βελιστίχης τὴν συνωρίδα Ὀλυμπιάδι πρὸ ταύτης τρίτῃ. πέμπτῃ δὲ ἐπὶ ταῖς τεσσαράκοντα καὶ ἑκατὸν ἆθλα ἐτέθη παγκρατίου παισί, καὶ ἐνίκα Φαίδιμος Αἰολεὺς ἐκ πόλεως Τρῳάδος.

--Pausanias, Description of Greece V.viii.11; Translated into Latin by Romulus Amaseus (1696)

Then they added a race of chariots pulled by a pair of young colts, as well as a colt riding competition. The victory for the first event went to Belistiche, a woman from a shore town in Macedon; the winner of the second event was Tlepolemus the Lycian. Tlepolemus won during the 300th Olympics; Belistiche won three years prior.

PAUSANIAS

MAP:

Name:  Pausanias

Date:  110 – 180 CE

Works:  Description of Greece

 

REGION  5

Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans


BIO:

Timeline:

 Pausanias was a Greek writer who lived during the era of the “Five Good Emperors.” His work, the Description of Greece, is an important source for geographical, historical, archaeological, and cultural information about ancient Greece.

 ROMAN GREEK

ARCHAIC: (through 6th c. BCE); GOLDEN AGE: (5th - 4th c. BCE); HELLENISTIC: (4th c. BCE - 1st c. BCE); ROMAN: (1st c. BCE - 4th c. CE); POST CONSTANTINOPLE: (4th c. CE - 8th c. CE); BYZANTINE: (post 8th c CE)


 

Challenging Gender Roles: One Proud Olympic Mama! Pausanias, Desc. Gr. V.vi.7-8

TRIGGER WARNING: forced gender reveal

In via quae Olympiam ducit cis Alpheum, Scillunte venienti, celsa crepidine praeruptus mons occurrit: Typaeum illum appellant. Hinc de saxo feminas deiicere Eleorum lex iubet, quae ad Olympicos ludos penetrasse deprehensae fuerint, vel quae omnino Alphaeum transmiserint, quibus est eis interdictum diebus. Non tamen deprehensam esse ullam perhibent praeter unam Callipatriam, quam alii Pherenicen nominant. Haec viro mortuo, cum virili ornatu exercitationum se magistrum simulans, Pisidorum filium in certamen deduxit: iamque eo vincente sepimentum id quo magistros seclusos habent, transiluit veste posita. Feminam tamen agnitam, omni crimine liberarunt. datum hoc ex iudicium aequitate, patris, fratrum, & filii gloriae, qui omnes ex Olympcis ludis victores abierant. Ex eo lege sancitum, ut nudati adessent ad ludicrum ipsi etiam magrstri.

κατὰ δὲ τὴν ἐς Ὀλυμπίαν ὁδόν, πρὶν ἢ διαβῆναι τὸν Ἀλφειόν, ἔστιν ὄρος ἐκ Σκιλλοῦντος ἐρχομένῳ πέτραις ὑψηλαῖς ἀπότομον: ὀνομάζεται δὲ Τυπαῖον τὸ ὄρος. κατὰ τούτου τὰς γυναῖκας Ἠλείοις ἐστὶν ὠθεῖν νόμος, ἢν φωραθῶσιν ἐς τὸν ἀγῶνα ἐλθοῦσαι τὸν Ὀλυμπικὸν ἢ καὶ ὅλως ἐν ταῖς ἀπειρημέναις σφίσιν ἡμέραις διαβᾶσαι τὸν Ἀλφειόν. οὐ μὴν οὐδὲ ἁλῶναι λέγουσιν οὐδεμίαν, ὅτι μὴ Καλλιπάτειραν μόνην: εἰσὶ δὲ οἳ τὴν αὐτὴν ταύτην Φερενίκην καὶ οὐ Καλλιπάτειραν καλοῦσιν.

 αὕτη προαποθανόντος αὐτῇ τοῦ ἀνδρός, ἐξεικάσασα αὑτὴν τὰ πάντα ἀνδρὶ γυμναστῇ, ἤγαγεν ἐς Ὀλυμπίαν τὸν υἱὸν μαχούμενον: νικῶντος δὲ τοῦ Πεισιρόδου, τὸ ἔρυμα ἐν ᾧ τοὺς γυμναστὰς ἔχουσιν ἀπειλημμένους, τοῦτο ὑπερπηδῶσα ἡ Καλλιπάτειρα ἐγυμνώθη. φωραθείσης δὲ ὅτι εἴη γυνή, ταύτην ἀφιᾶσιν ἀζήμιον καὶ τῷ πατρὶ καὶ ἀδελφοῖς αὐτῆς καὶ τῷ παιδὶ αἰδῶ νέμοντες—ὑπῆρχον δὴ ἅπασιν αὐτοῖς Ὀλυμπικαὶ νῖκαι—, ἐποίησαν δὲ νόμον ἐς τὸ ἔπειτα ἐπὶ τοῖς γυμνασταῖς γυμνοὺς σφᾶς ἐς τὸν ἀγῶνα ἐσέρχεσθαι.

--Pausanias, Description of Greece V.iv.7-8; Translated into Latin by Romulus Amaseus (1696)

On the road to Olympia, on your way to Scillus and before you cross the Alpheius, there is a really tall mountain with jagged rocks called Typaeon. According to the law of Elis, women who were caught at the Olympic Games on days when women were forbidden* (even women who were on the other side of the Alpheius) would be thrown from this mountain to their deaths**. But nobody was ever caught or punished, except Callipateira [although some say it was Pherenice, not Callipateira, who was caught].

The widow Callipateira dressed as a trainer and brought her son Pisirodus to Olympia to participate in the games. When he won, she leapt out of the dugout*** and her disguise was revealed. Outed as a woman, she nevertheless was freed of any charge out of respect to her father, her brothers, and her son (for all of them were Olympic victors). But they made the law that from then on, even the trainers had to be nude in the Olympics.


* Portions of the Olympic games were segregated by gender, but there were several documented women Olympic victors (including Cynisca and Bilistiche, both for chariot racing).  

**There are numerous examples of gender-exclusive rites in ancient Greek and Roman religion being profaned by intruders, including Alcibiades' intrusion of the Eleusinian Mysteries in 415 BCE and Clodius' intrusion of the Bona Dea Scandal in 62 BCE. 

*** A sectioned-off portion specifically for coaches and trainers

PAUSANIAS

MAP:

Name:  Pausanias

Date:  110 – 180 CE

Works:  Description of Greece

 

REGION  5

Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans


BIO:

Timeline:

 Pausanias was a Greek writer who lived during the era of the “Five Good Emperors.” His work, the Description of Greece, is an important source for geographical, historical, archaeological, and cultural information about ancient Greece.

 ROMAN GREEK

ARCHAIC: (through 6th c. BCE); GOLDEN AGE: (5th - 4th c. BCE); HELLENISTIC: (4th c. BCE - 1st c. BCE); ROMAN: (1st c. BCE - 4th c. CE); POST CONSTANTINOPLE: (4th c. CE - 8th c. CE); BYZANTINE: (post 8th c CE)



Thursday, July 8, 2021

M/M: You are my Shining Star: an Epigram Attributed to Plato

 

Stella vides coeli stellas meus, o ego coelum

si sim, quo te oculis pluribus aspiciam.


Αστέρας εισάθρει αστήρ έμός. είθε γενοίμην

ουρανός ώς πολλοίς όμμασιν εις σε βλέπω.

--Attributed to Plato [or Plato the Younger] , Florilegium Graeciae III.28; Translated by Hugh Grotius (1797)


My star watches the stars.

If only I were the heaven,

I could watch you with many eyes.


PLATO

MAP:

Name:  Plato

Date:  428 BCE – 348 BCE

Works:  Apology of Socrates

               The Republic

               Symposium*, etc.

REGION  5

Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans




BIO:

Timeline:

 Plato was an Athenian philosopher who is considered one of the most influential minds of Greek thought. Using his predecessor Socrates as his mouthpiece, he composed a number of philosophical dialogues that explored various ethical, philosophical, and moral concepts. He was the founder of the Athenian Academy, and was the mentor of the famous philosopher Aristotle.

 GOLDEN AGE GREECE

ARCHAIC: (through 6th c. BCE); GOLDEN AGE: (5th - 4th c. BCE); HELLENISTIC: (4th c. BCE - 1st c. BCE); ROMAN: (1st c. BCE - 4th c. CE); POST CONSTANTINOPLE: (4th c. CE - 8th c. CE); BYZANTINE: (post 8th c CE)




Tuesday, July 6, 2021

Challenging Gender Norms: Quintus Hortensius, Aulus Gellius Attic Nights I.v.2-3

 Trigger Warning: intentional misgendering of a person; slander

Q. Hortensius omnibus ferme oratoribus aetatis suae, nisi M. Tullio, clarior, quod multa munditia et circumspecte compositeque indutus et amictus esset manusque eius inter agendum forent argutae admodum et gestuosae, maledictis compellationibusque probris iactatus est, multaque in eum, quasi in histrionem, in ipsis causis atque iudiciis dicta sunt. 3 Sed cum L. Torquatus, subagresti homo ingenio et infestivo, gravius acerbiusque apud consilium iudicum, cum de causa Sullae quaereretur, non iam histrionem eum esse diceret, sed gesticulariam Dionysiamque eum notissimae saltatriculae nomine appellaret, tum voce molli atque demissa Hortensius "Dionysia," inquit "Dionysia malo equidem esse quam quod tu, Torquate, amousos, anaphroditos, aprosdionysos".

--Aulus Gellius, Noct. Att. I.v.1-3


Quintus Hortensius was more famous than nearly all of the politicians of his time period (with the exception of Cicero). Because he wore lavish outfits, with his outfits meticulously arranged, and because he used over-the-top hand gestures, he was slandered with curses and accusations of impropriety; a lot of people said that he performed like an actor even when he was in the courthouse and at trial.  There was one time when L. Torquatus, a boorish and inelegant man, was working on Sulla’s case, where he commented rather bitterly about Hortensius in court, not only saying that he was an actor, but also called him the name of an actress (the famous mime actress Dionysia).  Hortensius responded with a soft and condescending tone, “Dionysia? I would rather be Dionysia [loved by Dionysus] than you, Torquatus, who is unloved by the Muses, Aphrodite, or Dionysus.”

AULUS GELLIUS

MAP:

Name:  Aulus Gellius

Date:  2nd. c. CE

Works:  Attic Nights

 

REGION  UNKNOWN

Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans


BIO:

Timeline:

 Aulus Gellius lived during the 2nd century CE. His work, the Attic Nights, are a collection of anecdotes about literature, history, and grammar.  From internal evidence, we can deduce that he was in the Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius’ social circle, having close friendships with Herodes Atticus and Fronto.

 SILVER AGE LATIN

 

Early Roman Lit: through 2nd c BCE: Republican Rome: through 1st c. BCE; Golden Age: 70 BCE to 18 CE; Silver Age: 18 CE to 150 CE; Age of Conflict: 150 CE - 410 CE; Byzantine and Late Latin: after 410 CE