The Lion of Chaeronea was a memorial dedicated to the Theban Band (an army of paired lovers) who fell at the Battle of Chaeronea in 338 BCE
Proximo urbi loco est commune Thebanis sepulcrum, iis qui in acie contra Philippum stantes ceciderunt. Nulla est apposita inscriptio. Insigne tumuli leo est, ad eorum virorum animi magnitudinem significanda. Inscriptum (ut opinor) propterea nihil est,quod illorum hominum virtutem dii non fortunassent.
προσιόντων δὲ τῇ
πόλει πολυάνδριον Θηβαίων ἐστὶν ἐν τῷ πρὸς Φίλιππον ἀγῶνι ἀποθανόντων. ἐπιγέγραπται
μὲν δὴ ἐπίγραμμα οὐδέν, ἐπίθημα δ᾽ ἔπεστιν αὐτῷ λέων: φέροι δ᾽ ἂν ἐς τῶν ἀνδρῶν
μάλιστα τὸν θυμόν: ἐπίγραμμα δὲ ἄπεστιν ἐμοὶ δοκεῖν ὅτι οὐδὲ ἐοικότα τῇ τόλμῃ
σφίσι τὰ ἐκ τοῦ δαίμονος ἠκολούθησε.
--Pausanias, Descriptio Graeciae IX.xl.10;
Translated into Latin by Roulus Amaseus (1696)
Next to the city is a memorial for the soldiers who fell in the battle against Philipp. The memorial has no inscription; it is a
lion, signifying the courage of these men. I think the reason there is no
inscription is that victory did not accompany their daring effort.
Date: 110 – 180 CE
Description of Greece
Pausanias was a Greek writer who lived
during the era of the “Five Good Emperors.” His work, the Description of
Greece, is an important source for geographical, historical,
archaeological, and cultural information about ancient Greece.