Thursday, July 30, 2020

M/M: A List of "Really Good Friends": Hyginus, Fab. 257


Qui inter se amicitia iunctissimi fuerunt:
  • ·         Pylades Strophill filius cum Oreste Agamemnonis filio.
  • ·         Pirithous Ixionis filius cum Theseo Aegei filio.
  • ·         Achilles Pelei filius cum Patroclo Menoettii filio.
  • ·         Diomedes Tydei filius cum Sthenelo Capanei filio.
  • ·         Peleus Aeaci filius cum Phoenice Amyntoris filio.
  • ·         Hercules Iovis filius cum Philoctete Poeanis filio
  • ·         Harmodius et Aristogiton [more fraterno]
  • ·         In Sicilia [Dionysius] tyrannus crudelissimus cum esset suosque cives cruciatibus interficeret, Moeros tyrannum voluit interficere. Quem satellites cum deprehendissent armatum, ad regem perduxerunt. Qui interrogatus respondit se regem voluisse interficere. Quem rex iussit cruci figi, a quo Moerus petit tridui commeatum ut sororem suam nuptui collocaret et daret yranno Selinuntium amicum suum et sodalem qui sponderet eum tertio die venturum Cui rex indulsit commeatum ad sororem collocandam, dicitque rex Selinuntio, ut nisi ad diem Moerus veniret eum eandem poenam passurum, et dimittit Morerum. Qui collocata sorore cum reverteretur, repente tempestate et pluvia orta flumen ita increvit ut nec transiri nec transnatari posset. ad cuius ripam Moerus consedit et flere coepit ne amicus pro se periret. [Tyrannus] autem Selinuntium cruci figi cum iuberet ideo, quod horae sex tertii iam diei essent ne veniret Moerus, cui Selinuntius respondit diem adhuc non praeteriisse. cumque iam et horae novem essent, rex iubet duci Selinuntium in crucem. Qui cum duceretur vix tandem Moerus liberato flumine consequitur carnificem exclamatque a longe: sustine carnifex adsum quem spopondit. Quod factum regi nunciatur. Quos rex ad se iussit perduci rogavitque eos ut se in amicitiam reperent, vitamque Moero concessit.
  • ·         Harmodius et Aristogiton, idem in Sicilia eundem Phalarim Harmodius cum vellet interficere simulationis causa scrofa porcellos habentem occidit et venit ad Aristogitonem amicum suum esse sanguinolento dicitque se matrem interfecisse rogatque eum ut se celaret. qui cum ab eo celaretur rogavit Aristogitonem ut progrederetur rumoresque qui essent de matre sibi renunciaret. ... nullos esse rumores. qui vespere ita litem contraxeruntut alius alio potiora ingererent. nec ideo Aristogiton voluit obiicere eum matrem interfecisse. cui Harmodius patefecit se scrofam porcellos habentem interfecisse, et ideo 'matrem' dixisse. cui indicat se regem velle interficere rogatque eum, ut sibi adiutorio esset. qui cum ad regem interficiendum venissent deprehensi sunt a satellitibus armati; et cum perducerentur ad tyrannum, Aristogiton a satellitibus effugit. Harmodius autem solus cum perductus esset ad regem, quaererentque ab eo quis ei fuisset comes, ille ne amicum proderet, linguam dentibus sibi praecidit eamque regis in faciem inspuit.
  • ·         Nisus cum Euryalo suo pro quo et mortuus est.



--Hyginus, Fabulae 257


People who were really good “friends”:
  • Strophilius’ son Pylades was “really good friends” with Agamemnon’s son Orestes
  • Ixion’s son Pirithous was “really good friends” with Theseus
  • Peleus’ son Achilles was “really good friends” with Menoetes’ son Patroclus
  • Tydeus’ son Diomedes was “really good friends” with Capaneus’ son Sthenelus
  • Aeacus’ son Peleus was “really good friends” with Amyntor’s son Phoenix
  • Jupiter’s son Hercules was “really good friends” with Poeas’ son Philoctetes
  • Harmodius and Aristogiton [loved each other] like brothers
  • [Problematic manuscript here: this is the myth of Pythias & Damon] In Sicily, there was this very cruel tyrant named Dionysius whom Moeros wanted to kill because he was torturing and killing his own citizens. Guards caught him in the act and brought him to the king. When he was interrogated, he confessed that he wanted to kill the king. Naturally, the king ordered him to die by crucifixion; Moerus asked for a three day extension so that he could arrange his sister’s wedding. He offered the tyrant his friend and companion Selinuntius, who would serve as collateral of his pledge to return on the third day.  The king granted his request, and told Selinuntius that he would suffer the same punishment (i.e., crucifixion) if Moerus didn’t return on the proper day, then let Moerus go.


Once he arranged his sister’s affairs, Moerus started his journey back, but a sudden rainstorm occurred and raised the river so much that he could neither ford nor swim across it. Moerus sat upon the river bank and began to weep, saddened that his friend would have to die for him.

Therefore when the tyrant* ordered the crucifixion of Selinuntius, since it was already noon on the third day and Moerus had not yet arrived, Selinuntius responded that the day was not yet over.
In the middle of the afternoon, the king ordered Selinuntius’ execution. No sooner had he been led to the cross when Moerus, having crossed the river, ran up to the executioner and shouted as he neared: 
“Hold up! I’m here—release my friend!”

Once this was done, this news was relayed back to the king. The king ordered both men to be brought before him and told them that since they had proven their friendship to each other, he would spare Moerus’ life.

  • [Problematic manuscript here: this story should occur in Athens. The role of Harmodius and Leaena are conflated; Phalaris and Dionysius are used interchangeably as the name of the tyrant] Harmodius and Aristogiton: they also lived in under the same tyrant, Phalaris.* When Harmodius wanted to kill the tyrant, he created a ruse and killed a pregnant sow. He went to his friend Aristogiton while covered in its blood and told him that he had killed his own mother, and asked him to harbor him.  Once Aristogiton hid him,  Harmodius asked him to go about town and report back to him all of the rumors about his mother’s death—but there were no rumors. That evening, their bond grew even stronger, for Aristogiton didn’t want to expose his friend for killing his mother. Harmodius revealed to Aristogiton that he had killed a pregnant sow, and had called it his “mother.” Then he told him that he wanted to kill the king, and asked him if he would be willing to help him.  When they went up to the king to kill him, they were caught in the act by the guards; but as they were brought before the tyrant, Aristogiton was able to escape custody.

When Harmodius was brought before the king, they asked him who his accomplice was, but he would not betray his friend. Instead he bit off his own tongue and spat it out in the king’s face.

  • Also, Nisus was “really good friends” with Euryalus, and died for him. 

HYGINUS
MAP:
Name: Gaius Julius Hyginus
Date: 64 BCE – 17 CE
Works: Fabulae*
               De Astronomica

REGION 1 / 4*
Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans

BIO:
Timeline:
Hyginus was a freedman of the Roman emperor Augustus who was in charge of the Imperial library on the Palatine Hill in Rome. His work, the Fabulae, are a sourcebook for Greek and Roman myths. Although there is quite a bit of overlap between his writings and his contemporary and friend Ovid’s Metamorphoses, Hyginus’ works are much more succinct.
GOLDEN AGE ROME

* There is evidence that Hyginus may have been from Alexandria, Egypt (Suetonius, de Gramm. 20)

Wednesday, July 22, 2020

W/W: Bassa's Riddle, Martial 1.90.1-6

Quod numquam maribus iunctam te, Bassa, videbam
     quodque tibi moechum fabula nulla dabat,
omne sed officium circa te semper obibat
     turba tui sexus, non adeunte viro,
esse videbaris, fateor, Lucretia* nobis:              5
     at tu, pro facinus, Bassa, [incasta] eras!


--Martial, Epig. I.90.1-6, 9-10

Bassa,
Because I never saw you in any man's arms,
Because I never heard a rumor about you cheating,
Because no man ever dated you,
Because you were content
with the swarm of women always at your side,
you seemed to be an ideal of chastity to me.
But dang it, Bassa, all this time you’ve been dating them!

* Lucretia was a role model of chastity in early Roman history.


Disclaimer: This text has been modified to fit the scope of this blog. The nominative predicate in line six has been changed into a less severe alternative. Considering the scarcity of women's perspectives in Latin literature, I felt it was important to include this passage despite the language it uses.



MARTIAL
MAP:
Name: Marcus Valerius Martialis
Date:  40 CE – 104 CE
Works:  Epigrammaton Libri XV*
               De Spectaculis

REGION  2 (Hispania)
Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans

BIO:
Timeline:
Originally from Bilbilis, Hispania, the poet Martial moved to Rome in the 60s CE to advance his career. His two extant works include de Spectaculis, a collection of poems written to commemorate the opening of the Colosseum, and a fifteen volume collection of epigrams. These epigrams provide valuable insight into the mores and private lives of men and women from all of the city’s social classes.     
 SILVER AGE ROME
Early Roman Lit: through 2nd c BCE: Republican Rome: through 1st c. BCE; Golden Age: 70 BCE to 18 CE; Silver Age: 18 CE to 150 CE; Age of Conflict: 150 CE - 410 CE; Byzantine: after 410 CE


Friday, July 17, 2020

W/W: Love, You Bittersweet Beast! Sappho fr. 38

Amor autem me artuum dissolutor versat, 
dulciamara [belva] inexpugnabilis.

Ἕροσ δαὖτέ μ᾽ ὀ λυσιμέλεσ δόνει,
γλυκύπικρον ἀμάχανον ὄρπετον.

--Sappho fr. 38

Limb-shredding Love has turned against me,
Love, you invincible & bittersweet beast!

SAPPHO
MAP:
Name:  Σαπφώ / Sappho
Date:  630 – 570 BCE
Works:  <lost: only fragments remain>

REGION  5
Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans

BIO:
Timeline:
Sappho was universally applauded by the ancient world as the “Tenth Muse.” Because she was one of the earliest Greek lyric poets, there is very little definitive information on Sappho’s life.  It is generally agreed that Sappho was a wealthy noblewoman from the island of Lesbos who had three brothers and a daughter named Kleis. She used her prominent social position to support a cohort of other women artists, and composed many poems about them, expressing her love for them, praising their beauty, and celebrating their marriages. Whereas earlier Greek poetry was epic poetry with serious themes of gods, warfare, and the state, Sappho’s lyric poetry is emotional, intimate and personal. Her poetry centers around womanhood and womanly love, providing rare insight into social mores of the time period. The modern term “lesbian” (a woman who is attracted to another woman) reveals the longevity of her impact upon western culture [NOTE: Although “lesbian” is the accepted term in modern English, authors in the ancient world used a different word for a homosexual woman, and only occasionally used the term “lesbian” euphemistically]. Unfortunately, although her poetry was universally revered by the Greeks and Romans alike, Sappho’s works only exist as fragments, adding mysterious allure to her larger-than-life status but unfortunately hindering our understanding of her life and thoughts.
 Archaic Greek
ARCHAIC: (through 6th c. BCE); GOLDEN AGE: (5th - 4th c. BCE); ALEXANDRIAN: (4th c. BCE - 1st c. BCE); ROMAN: (1st c. BCE - 4th c. CE); POST CONSTANTINOPLE: (4th c. CE - 8th c. CE); BYZANTINE: (post 8th c CE)





The Terrible Fate of Intersex Children in Rome: Livy, AUC XXXIX.22

TRIGGER WARNING: During early Roman history, the birth of an intersex child was seen as a bad omen. This passage gives explicit details of the inhumane treatment of these unfortunate children. However, the fact that an intersex child was discovered at the age of 12 shows that some parents were successful in protecting their intersex children from Rome's brutal religious laws.


sub idem tempus et ex Umbria nuntiatum est semimarem duodecim ferme annos natum inuentum. id prodigium abominantes arceri Romano agro necarique quam primum iusserunt.

--Livy, Ab Urbe Condita XXXIX.22

At that time it was reported that in Umbria a nearly twelve year old intersex child was found; the child was executed as quickly as possible in order to to protect the Roman soil from this bad omen.

LIVY
MAP:
Name:  Titus Livius
Date:  60 BCE – 15 CE
Works:  Ab Urbe Condita*
               Periochae

REGION  1
Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans

BIO:
Timeline:
Livy was born in Patavium (Cisalpine Gaul, located in northern Italy) and lived during the tumultuous transition of Roman government from republic to monarchy. Unlike other peers in his social class, Livy was no statesman. Although he was in the same political network of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, he never participated in politics. Instead, he devoted his life to his magnum opus, a 142-volume history of Rome called the Ab Urbe Condita. As its title suggests, this book contains nearly eight hundred years of history, spanning from Aeneas’ mythical flight from Troy to contemporary events during the reign of the emperor Augustus. Unfortunately, only thirty-five of these books remain; the remaining volumes only exist in summary forms (called Periochae).  Although his histories were not sponsored by Augustus or the Roman government, Livy nevertheless wrote his history with a didactic purpose, intending for his book to reinforce gender roles and virtues, as well as showcase the glory of the Roman past.  
 GOLDEN AGE ROME
Early Roman Lit: through 2nd c BCE: Republican Rome: through 1st c. BCE; Golden Age: 70 BCE to 18 CE; Silver Age: 18 CE to 150 CE; Age of Conflict: 150 CE - 410 CE; Byzantine: after 410 CE

The Terrible Fate of Intersex Children in Ancient Rome: A List, Julius Obsequens Prod.


Trigger Warning: murder

Julius Obsequens cataloged prodigies of the first and second centuries BCE. These omens ranged from natural occurrences (such as eclipses and temples being struck by lightning) to fanciful things (such as talking animals).

One of the reasons why this work is so important to LGBTQIA+ scholars is its documentation of the treatment of intersex children in Rome. Unfortunately, early Romans viewed the birth of an intersex child as an omen of divine anger and put those children to death. The surprising amount of older children mentioned in this list suggests that some parents were successful in protecting their intersex children from Rome's brutal religious laws. When translating, note the difference of the verb "natus" ("born") and "inventus" ("found"); "found" children were sheltered by their parents. 

·         3. In Umbria semimas duodecim ferme annorum inventus aruspicumque iussu necatus. (A.U.C. 568 / 186 B.C.)

·         22. Lunae androgynus natus praecepto aruspicum in mare deportatus. [A.U.C. 612 / 142 B.C.]
·         27a. In Agro Ferentino androgynus natus et in flumen deiectus. [A.U.C. 621 / 133 B.C.]
·         32. In foro Vessano androgynus natus in mare delatus est. [A.U.C. 632 / 122 B.C.]
·         34. Androgynus in agro Romano annorum octo inventus et in mare deportatus [A.U.C. 635 / 119 B.C.]
·         36. Saturniae androgynus annorum decem inventus et mari demersus.  [A.U.C. 637 / 117 B.C.]
·         47. Item androgynus in mare deportatus. [A.U.C. 656 / 98 B.C.]
·         48. Supplicatum in urbe quod androgynus inventus et in mare deportatus erat.  [A.U.C. 657 / 97 B.C.]
·         50. Androgynus Urbino natus in mare deportatus. [A.U.C. 659 / 95 B.C.]
·         53. Mulier duplici natura inventa...Arretii duo androgyni inventi [A.U.C. 662 / 92 B.C.]

--Julius Obsequens, Ab Urbe Condita DV Prodigiorum Liber

186 BCE: In Umbria a nearly 12-year-old intersex child was found and was executed (by order of the priests)
142 BCE: At Luna, an intersex child was born and thrown into the sea (by order of the priests)
133 BCE: In the city limits of Ferentino, an intersex child was born and thrown into a river
122 BCE: An intersex child was born in downtown Avezzano and was thrown into the sea
119 BCE: An eight-year-old intersex child was found living in Roman city limits and was thrown into the sea.
117 BCE: At Saturnia, a ten-year-old intersex child was found and thrown into the sea
98 BCE: Another intersex child thrown into the sea
97 BCE: Religious Rituals held in Rome because an intersex child was found in the city and thrown into the sea.
95 BCE: An intersex child was born in Urbino and thrown into the sea
92 BCE: An intersex adult woman was found.   At Arretium, two intersex children were found.

JULIUS OBSEQUENS
MAP:
Name:  Julius Obsequens
Date:  4th – 5th c. CE
Works:  AB ANNO URBIS CONDITAE DV PRODIGIORUM LIBER*
REGION  UNKNOWN
Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans

BIO:
Timeline:
Little is known about the life of Julius Obsequens. His work, a list of prodigies sorted chronologically, covers the span of the years of 190 BCE to 11 BCE. He relied heavily on Livy’s Ab Urbe Condita for his source material.
 BYZANTINE / LATE LATIN
Early Roman Lit: through 2nd c BCE: Republican Rome: through 1st c. BCE; Golden Age: 70 BCE to 18 CE; Silver Age: 18 CE to 150 CE; Age of Conflict: 150 CE - 410 CE; Byzantine / Late Latin: after 410 CE




        



Monday, July 13, 2020

M/M: Love Conquers Evil: Harmodius & Aristogeiton, Max. Tyr. Diss. VIII

Adolescens quidam Atticus, amatores habebat duos, privatum hominem et tyrannum: quorum alter vir probus erat, conditionis suae memor: alter improbus, potentiae fiducia. Sed et adolescens vere pulcher erat, et amore non indignus: quo facilius tyrannum contempsit, privatum hominem amplexus est. Quare succensus ille, praeter alias iniurias, queis utrunque affecit, sororem Harmodii quae Panathenaeorum festo ad gerendum canistrum veniebat, cum ignominia eiecit. Huius facinoris poenam statim Pisistratidae dedere, causaque Atheniensibus libertatis fuit, contumeliosa tyranni libido, adolescentis audacia, probusque amor, et amatoris virtus. 

--Maximus of Tyre, Dissertation VIII

A certain Athenian youth [Harmodius] had two lovers: one was a citizen [Aristogeiton] and one was a tyrant [Hipparchus]. One of these men [Aristogeiton] was distinguished for his behavior, and knew his place in life; the other [Hipparchus] was wicked, and abused his position. This youth [Harmodius] was beautiful and worthy of love; and so he matter-of-factly rejected the tyrant [Hipparchus] and dated the private citizen. The tyrant became angry at this fact and, took his anger out on both youths, as well as Harmodius’ sister, whom he banned from carrying the sacred baskets at the Panathenian Festival (implying she was not a virgin). Immediately this tyrant [Hipparchus] paid the penalty for his conduct, and the shameful lust of the tyrant, together with the daring of the youth, his appropriate love, and his love of virtue, was the cause of the liberation of Athens [from tyranny].


MAXIMUS OF TYRE
MAP:
Name:  Cassius Maximus Tyrius
Date:  2nd c. CE
Works:  Dissertations

REGION  5
Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans

BIO:
Timeline:
Maximus of Tyre was listed as one of the most influential people in the Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius’ life. Maximus spent most of his life in scholarly pursuits; his Dissertations were a collection of philosophical treatises based on the thought of Plato.
 ROMAN GREEK LIT
ARCHAIC: (through 6th c. BCE); GOLDEN AGE: (5th - 4th c. BCE); ALEXANDRIAN: (4th c. BCE - 1st c. BCE); ROMAN: (1st c. BCE - 4th c. CE); POST CONSTANTINOPLE: (4th c. CE - 8th c. CE); BYZANTINE: (post 8th c CE)



Sunday, July 12, 2020

A Transgender Man: Caeneus, Vat. Myth. II.130

TRIGGER WARNING: rape

Caenis virgo fuit, quae a Neptuno pro stupro praemium sexus mutationem meruit. Fuit etiam invulnerabilis. Sed pugnando pro Lapythis contra centauros, crebris ictibus fustium paulllatim fixus in terra est. Post mortem tamen in sexum rediit.

--Vatian Mythographers II.130

Neptune assaulted the woman Caenis and in return, gave her as a gift the change of gender. [Caeneus] also became indestructible (impervious to being stabbed). But when he helped the Lapiths battle the centaurs, he was crushed to death by logs. When he died, his gender changed back.

VATICAN MYTHOGRAPHERS
MAP:
Name:  ???
Date:  10th c. CE (?)
Works:  Mythographi Vaticani*

REGION  UNKNOWN
Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans

BIO:
Timeline:
Little is known about the author or origin of the collection of myths known as the Vatican Mythographers, but the work’s first editor Angelo Mai found the collection on a manuscript dating back to the 10th century CE. This volume is a collection of three different mythographers who have assembled various Greco-Roman myths; although many of these myths are basic summaries in Latin, some of them are either analyzed as allegories or compared to Christian thought.  
 LATE LATIN (10th c. CE ?)
Early Roman Lit: through 2nd c BCE: Republican Rome: through 1st c. BCE; Golden Age: 70 BCE to 18 CE; Silver Age: 18 CE to 150 CE; Age of Conflict: 150 CE - 410 CE; Byzantine and Late Latin: after 410 CE

Tuesday, July 7, 2020

Challenging Gender Roles: Telesilla, Suidas in Telesilla T.260

Telesilla poetria. Huic statua posita est, ad cuius pedes libri iacent: galea vero capiti eius imposita est. Etenim cum Lacedaemonii, interfectis iis, qui in templum Argorum confugerant, ad urbem capiendum irent, Telesilla mulieres, quae per aetatem arma ferre poterant, armavit, et sic hostibus obviam processit. Quod conspicati Lacedaemonii retro cesserunt, turpe ducentes cum mulieribus pugnare, quas et vincere nulla sit gloria, et a quibus vinci, magnum sit dedecus.

Τελέσιλλα, ποιήτρια. ἐπὶ στήλης τὰ μὲν βιβλία ἀπέρριπτε, κράνος δὲ τῃ̂ κεφαλῃ̂ περιέθηκε. καὶ γὰρ ὅτε Λακεδαιμόνιοι τοὺς ἐν τῳ̂ ἱερῳ̂ του̂  ̓́Αργους καταφυγόντας διέφθειρον καὶ πρὸς τὴν πόλιν ᾔεσαν ὡς αἱρήσοντες, τότε Τελέσιλλα τὰς ἐν ἡλικίᾳ γυναι̂κας ὁπλίσασα ὑπήντησεν οἱ̂ προσῄεσαν. ὅπερ ἰδόντες οἱ Λακεδαιμόνιοι ἐς τοὐπίσω ὑπέστρεψαν, αἰσχρὸν νομίσαντες γυναιξὶ πολεμει̂ν, ἃς καὶ τὸ νικα̂ν ἄδοξον καὶ ἡττα̂σθαι μέγα ὄνειδος. ἐς του̂το καὶ ὁ χρησμὸς πεπλήρωτο,  ̓Αργείοις λέγων: ἀλλ' ὅταν ἡ θήλεια τὸν ἄρρενα νικήσασα ἐξελάσῃ καὶ κυ̂δος  ̓Αργείοισιν ἄρηται, πολλὰς  ̓Αργείων ἀμφιδρυφέας τότε θήσει.

--Suidas, in Telesilla, [T.260]; Translated into Latin by Ludolfus Kufterus


Telesilla the Poet: She is depicted with a helmet upon her head and with books scattered at her feet. For when the Lacedaemonians had killed those who had fled to the temple in Argos, and had marched against the city to capture it,  Telesilla armed the women capable of battle and went out to meet the enemy. When the Lacedaemonians saw them, they retreated, thinking it would be inappropriate to fight against women, since they would earn no glory if they won, but great shame if they lost.

SUDA
MAP:
Name:  ???
Date:  10th c. CE
Works:  Suda

REGION  UNKNOWN
Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans

BIO:
Timeline:
 The Suda is a literary encyclopedia created in the 10th century CE by an anonymous Byzantine scholar.
 BYZANTINE GREEK
ARCHAIC: (through 6th c. BCE); GOLDEN AGE: (5th - 4th c. BCE); ALEXANDRIAN: (4th c. BCE - 1st c. BCE); ROMAN: (1st c. BCE - 4th c. CE); POST CONSTANTINOPLE: (4th c. CE - 8th c. CE); BYZANTINE: (post 8th c CE)

The Terrible Fate of Intersex Children in Ancient Rome: Livy, AUC XXXI.12

TRIGGER WARNING: During early Roman history, the birth of an intersex child was seen as a bad omen. This passage gives explicit details of the inhumane treatment of these unfortunate children. However, the fact that an intersex child was discovered at the age of 16 shows that some parents were successful in protecting their intersex children from Rome's brutal religious laws.


curam expiandae uiolationis eius templi prodigia etiam sub idem tempus pluribus locis nuntiata accenderunt. in Lucanis caelum arsisse adferebant, Priuerni sereno per diem totum rubrum solem fuisse, Lanuui i<n> templo Sospitae Iunonis nocte strepitum ingentem exortum. iam animalium obsceni fetus pluribus locis nuntiabantur: in Sabinis incertus infans natus, masculus an femina esset, alter sedecim iam annorum item ambiguo sexu inuentus; Frusinone agnus cum suillo capite, Sinuessae porcus cum capite humano natus, in Lucanis in agro publico eculeus cum quinque pedibus. foeda omnia et deformia errantisque in alienos fetus naturae uisa: ante omnia abominati semimares iussique in mare extemplo deportari, sicut proxime C. Claudio M. Liuio consulibus deportatus similis prodigii fetus erat. 


--Livy, Ab Urbe Condita, XXXI.12


Furthermore, the fact that numerous bad omens were reported in many places at that time period encouraged the Romans to expiate the violation of the Temple of Persephone [in Locri]. For in Lucania, they say that the sky burned red; at Privernum, the sun was red throughout the entire day, even though the sky was clear; at the Temple of Juno Sospita in Lanuvium, a giant crash was reported. Furthermore, unusual births were announced in many places: among the Sabines, a child of uncertain sex was born, and another person of ambiguous sex was found at the age of sixteen. At Frusino a lamb was born with a pig’s head; at Sinuessa, a pig was born with a human head; and on public land at Lucania, a colt was born with five feet. These unhealthy omens and misshapen births seemed to show nature straying into different paths: of all these omens, the ill-omened intersex children were immediately ordered to be dragged out to sea, as similar children had been treated during the consulship of C. Claudius and M. Livius.


LIVY
MAP:
Name:  Titus Livius
Date:  60 BCE – 15 CE
Works:  Ab Urbe Condita*
               Periochae

REGION  1
Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans

BIO:
Timeline:
Livy was born in Patavium (Cisalpine Gaul, located in northern Italy) and lived during the tumultuous transition of Roman government from republic to monarchy. Unlike other peers in his social class, Livy was no statesman. Although he was in the same political network of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, he never participated in politics. Instead, he devoted his life to his magnum opus, a 142-volume history of Rome called the Ab Urbe Condita. As its title suggests, this book contains nearly eight hundred years of history, spanning from Aeneas’ mythical flight from Troy to contemporary events during the reign of the emperor Augustus. Unfortunately, only thirty-five of these books remain; the remaining volumes only exist in summary forms (called Periochae).  Although his histories were not sponsored by Augustus or the Roman government, Livy nevertheless wrote his history with a didactic purpose, intending for his book to reinforce gender roles and virtues, as well as showcase the glory of the Roman past.  
 GOLDEN AGE ROME
Early Roman Lit: through 2nd c BCE: Republican Rome: through 1st c. BCE; Golden Age: 70 BCE to 18 CE; Silver Age: 18 CE to 150 CE; Age of Conflict: 150 CE - 410 CE; Byzantine: after 410 CE


Wednesday, July 1, 2020

M/M: A Praise of Patroclus: Maximus of Tyre, Diss. VIII

Et ecce statim in principio operis amatores introducit duos, qui de captiva una inter se certant, quorum alter audax est & furiosus: alter lenior quidem, huius tamen perturbationis haud immunis. Alter ex oculis flammam iacit, omnibusque maledicit, et minatur ordine: alter tacite recedit, humi lacrimans procumbit & anxius oberrat: discessurum denique se ait, cum maneat. Alia est impudici amoris imago, quam in Paride habes, qui proelio se subducit, thalamum intrat, et ubique moecho est similis. Invenies et castum amorem, qui utrinque mutuo respondet, quem in Hectore habes & Andromache: quae viro suo et amatori Hectori, patris fratrisque et si quae praeterea amicissima sunt tribuit nomina. Ille vicissim, ne de matre quidem sua se tam sollicitum esse ait, quam de illa. Habes et Venereum in concubitu Iunonis & Iovis. Et libidinosum, in procis: illecebrosum in Calypsone, veneficum in Circe, virilem in Patroclo: qui labore mutuo accenditur, et ad mortem usque constans manet. Quorum uterque iuvenis, uterque pulcher, uterque castus est. Alter instruit, alter instruitur, alter dolet, solatur alter, alter canit, auscultat alter. Affectum amatorium et hoc exprimit, quod cum pugnae potestatem sibi fieri optet Patroclus, lacrimetur tanquam non impetraturus hoc ab amante. Qui tamen et veniam illi concedit, et arma sua. Sed et cunctante eo metuit, et iam mortuo mori quoque optat, iramque suam deponit. Amatoriae sunt et nocturnae visiones, et somnia, et lacrimae illae: donum postremo ultimum quod sepulchro impendit, capillus. Haec sunt amatoria Homeri.

--Maximus of Tyre, Dissertation VIII, Translated from the Greek by Claudius Larjot


Right at the beginning of the Iliad, Homer presents us with two lovers who are fighting over a captive woman: one [Agamemnon] is bold and passionate, the other [Achilles] is soft spoken, but not impervious to feeling emotion. The one [Agamemnon] shoots daggers from his eyes, slanders everyone, and threatens each and everyone present; the other [Achilles] quietly leaves, throwing himself on the ground and weeping, lost; he says he will leave, but stays nonetheless.

Another type of love is shameful love, the kind that Paris has: he withdraws from the heat of battle to snuggle with his lover, and is an adulterer in every sense of the word.

You can also find perfect love [castum amorem], which is reciprocal, the kind that Hector and Andromache shared. Andromache called Hector her husband and lover, her husband and brother, and every other name shared with a loved one. In turn, he told her that he was more worried for her than for his own mother.

You can read about sexual love [Venereum] in the bedding scene of Juno & Jupiter.

You can read about lust in Penelope’s suitors; seductive love in the case of Calypso; loves brought about by love potions with Circe, and manly love [virilem] in the case of Patroclus. This love [between Patroclus and Achilles] is brought about by mutual effort, and remains steadfast even in death. It exists between two young men, both beautiful, both consensual [castus]. They both take care of each other. One grieves, the other consoles; one sings, the other enjoys the song.

The one expresses his feelings to the other: when Patroclus wants permission to join the fight, on the verge of tears if he wasn’t allowed by his lover. Yet when Achilles allows him to join the Greeks in battle, he gave both his blessing and even his own weapons. And Achilles is terrified while Patroclus is engaged in battle, and wishes to die when Patroclus is slain, and then resolves his anger. His nightly visions, his dreams, his tears are all proof of his love for Patroclus: even the lock of hair that he offers to his lover’s tomb in a final gift [is proof].

These are the types of love you find in Homer.

MAXIMUS OF TYRE
MAP:
Name:  Cassius Maximus Tyrius
Date:  2nd c. CE
Works:  Dissertations

REGION  5
Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans

BIO:
Timeline:
Maximus of Tyre was listed as one of the most influential people in the Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius’ life. Maximus spent most of his life in scholarly pursuits; his Dissertations were a collection of philosophical treatises based on the thought of Plato.
 ROMAN GREEK LIT
ARCHAIC: (through 6th c. BCE); GOLDEN AGE: (5th - 4th c. BCE); ALEXANDRIAN: (4th c. BCE - 1st c. BCE); ROMAN: (1st c. BCE - 4th c. CE); POST CONSTANTINOPLE: (4th c. CE - 8th c. CE); BYZANTINE: (post 8th c CE)