Thursday, July 30, 2020

M/M: A List of "Really Good Friends": Hyginus, Fab. 257


Qui inter se amicitia iunctissimi fuerunt:
  • ·         Pylades Strophill filius cum Oreste Agamemnonis filio.
  • ·         Pirithous Ixionis filius cum Theseo Aegei filio.
  • ·         Achilles Pelei filius cum Patroclo Menoettii filio.
  • ·         Diomedes Tydei filius cum Sthenelo Capanei filio.
  • ·         Peleus Aeaci filius cum Phoenice Amyntoris filio.
  • ·         Hercules Iovis filius cum Philoctete Poeanis filio
  • ·         Harmodius et Aristogiton [more fraterno]
  • ·         In Sicilia [Dionysius] tyrannus crudelissimus cum esset suosque cives cruciatibus interficeret, Moeros tyrannum voluit interficere. Quem satellites cum deprehendissent armatum, ad regem perduxerunt. Qui interrogatus respondit se regem voluisse interficere. Quem rex iussit cruci figi, a quo Moerus petit tridui commeatum ut sororem suam nuptui collocaret et daret yranno Selinuntium amicum suum et sodalem qui sponderet eum tertio die venturum Cui rex indulsit commeatum ad sororem collocandam, dicitque rex Selinuntio, ut nisi ad diem Moerus veniret eum eandem poenam passurum, et dimittit Morerum. Qui collocata sorore cum reverteretur, repente tempestate et pluvia orta flumen ita increvit ut nec transiri nec transnatari posset. ad cuius ripam Moerus consedit et flere coepit ne amicus pro se periret. [Tyrannus] autem Selinuntium cruci figi cum iuberet ideo, quod horae sex tertii iam diei essent ne veniret Moerus, cui Selinuntius respondit diem adhuc non praeteriisse. cumque iam et horae novem essent, rex iubet duci Selinuntium in crucem. Qui cum duceretur vix tandem Moerus liberato flumine consequitur carnificem exclamatque a longe: sustine carnifex adsum quem spopondit. Quod factum regi nunciatur. Quos rex ad se iussit perduci rogavitque eos ut se in amicitiam reperent, vitamque Moero concessit.
  • ·         Harmodius et Aristogiton, idem in Sicilia eundem Phalarim Harmodius cum vellet interficere simulationis causa scrofa porcellos habentem occidit et venit ad Aristogitonem amicum suum esse sanguinolento dicitque se matrem interfecisse rogatque eum ut se celaret. qui cum ab eo celaretur rogavit Aristogitonem ut progrederetur rumoresque qui essent de matre sibi renunciaret. ... nullos esse rumores. qui vespere ita litem contraxeruntut alius alio potiora ingererent. nec ideo Aristogiton voluit obiicere eum matrem interfecisse. cui Harmodius patefecit se scrofam porcellos habentem interfecisse, et ideo 'matrem' dixisse. cui indicat se regem velle interficere rogatque eum, ut sibi adiutorio esset. qui cum ad regem interficiendum venissent deprehensi sunt a satellitibus armati; et cum perducerentur ad tyrannum, Aristogiton a satellitibus effugit. Harmodius autem solus cum perductus esset ad regem, quaererentque ab eo quis ei fuisset comes, ille ne amicum proderet, linguam dentibus sibi praecidit eamque regis in faciem inspuit.
  • ·         Nisus cum Euryalo suo pro quo et mortuus est.



--Hyginus, Fabulae 257


People who were really good “friends”:
  • Strophilius’ son Pylades was “really good friends” with Agamemnon’s son Orestes
  • Ixion’s son Pirithous was “really good friends” with Theseus
  • Peleus’ son Achilles was “really good friends” with Menoetes’ son Patroclus
  • Tydeus’ son Diomedes was “really good friends” with Capaneus’ son Sthenelus
  • Aeacus’ son Peleus was “really good friends” with Amyntor’s son Phoenix
  • Jupiter’s son Hercules was “really good friends” with Poeas’ son Philoctetes
  • Harmodius and Aristogiton [loved each other] like brothers
  • [Problematic manuscript here: this is the myth of Pythias & Damon] In Sicily, there was this very cruel tyrant named Dionysius whom Moeros wanted to kill because he was torturing and killing his own citizens. Guards caught him in the act and brought him to the king. When he was interrogated, he confessed that he wanted to kill the king. Naturally, the king ordered him to die by crucifixion; Moerus asked for a three day extension so that he could arrange his sister’s wedding. He offered the tyrant his friend and companion Selinuntius, who would serve as collateral of his pledge to return on the third day.  The king granted his request, and told Selinuntius that he would suffer the same punishment (i.e., crucifixion) if Moerus didn’t return on the proper day, then let Moerus go.


Once he arranged his sister’s affairs, Moerus started his journey back, but a sudden rainstorm occurred and raised the river so much that he could neither ford nor swim across it. Moerus sat upon the river bank and began to weep, saddened that his friend would have to die for him.

Therefore when the tyrant* ordered the crucifixion of Selinuntius, since it was already noon on the third day and Moerus had not yet arrived, Selinuntius responded that the day was not yet over.
In the middle of the afternoon, the king ordered Selinuntius’ execution. No sooner had he been led to the cross when Moerus, having crossed the river, ran up to the executioner and shouted as he neared: 
“Hold up! I’m here—release my friend!”

Once this was done, this news was relayed back to the king. The king ordered both men to be brought before him and told them that since they had proven their friendship to each other, he would spare Moerus’ life.

  • [Problematic manuscript here: this story should occur in Athens. The role of Harmodius and Leaena are conflated; Phalaris and Dionysius are used interchangeably as the name of the tyrant] Harmodius and Aristogiton: they also lived in under the same tyrant, Phalaris.* When Harmodius wanted to kill the tyrant, he created a ruse and killed a pregnant sow. He went to his friend Aristogiton while covered in its blood and told him that he had killed his own mother, and asked him to harbor him.  Once Aristogiton hid him,  Harmodius asked him to go about town and report back to him all of the rumors about his mother’s death—but there were no rumors. That evening, their bond grew even stronger, for Aristogiton didn’t want to expose his friend for killing his mother. Harmodius revealed to Aristogiton that he had killed a pregnant sow, and had called it his “mother.” Then he told him that he wanted to kill the king, and asked him if he would be willing to help him.  When they went up to the king to kill him, they were caught in the act by the guards; but as they were brought before the tyrant, Aristogiton was able to escape custody.

When Harmodius was brought before the king, they asked him who his accomplice was, but he would not betray his friend. Instead he bit off his own tongue and spat it out in the king’s face.

  • Also, Nisus was “really good friends” with Euryalus, and died for him. 

HYGINUS
MAP:
Name: Gaius Julius Hyginus
Date: 64 BCE – 17 CE
Works: Fabulae*
               De Astronomica

REGION 1 / 4*
Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans

BIO:
Timeline:
Hyginus was a freedman of the Roman emperor Augustus who was in charge of the Imperial library on the Palatine Hill in Rome. His work, the Fabulae, are a sourcebook for Greek and Roman myths. Although there is quite a bit of overlap between his writings and his contemporary and friend Ovid’s Metamorphoses, Hyginus’ works are much more succinct.
GOLDEN AGE ROME

* There is evidence that Hyginus may have been from Alexandria, Egypt (Suetonius, de Gramm. 20)

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