Thursday, December 31, 2020

M/M: You Cannot Compare These Two, Lucilius fr. 311

 

Huncin ego umquam Hyacintho hominem cortinipotentis

deliciis contendi?

--Lucilius, fr. 311-312, preserved in Nonius 258,38

Have I ever compared this man to the Apollo’s love-slave* Hyacinthus?

* Note that the author refers to Hyacinthus here with deliciae, which sometimes is used to indicate sexual subservience or even slavery when referring to a male partner


LUCILIUS

MAP:

Name:  Gaius Lucilius

Date:  2nd century BCE

Works:  Satires

 

REGION  1

Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans


BIO:

Timeline:

 Lucilius was an Italian poet and one of Rome’s earliest satirists. Although his works and his style deeply influenced the genre of Roman satire, most of his writings are lost to history and only fragments remain.  

 REPUBLICAN ROME

Early Roman Lit: through 2nd c BCE: Republican Rome: through 1st c. BCE; Golden Age: 70 BCE to 18 CE; Silver Age: 18 CE to 150 CE; Age of Conflict: 150 CE - 410 CE; Byzantine and Late Latin: after 410 CE




 

I Like Both: Greek Anthology, V.64

TRIGGER WARNING: the author of this poem uses rape myths to represent homosexuality and heterosexuality

Aquila Juppiter venit ad dium Ganymedem

cygnus ad flavam matrem Helenae

Sic utrumque non est discernibile: horum autem duorum

aliis aliud videtur praeferendum, mihi ambo.


Αιετος ο Ζεύς ήλθεν επ αντίθεον Γανυμήδην

κύκνος επί ξανθην μητέρα της Ελένης

Ούτως αμφότερ εστίν ασύγκριτα των δύο δ αυτών

άλλοις άλλο δοκεί κρείσσον εμοί τα δύο


--Anonymous, Greek Anthology v.64; Translated into Latin by Frederick Duebner


Jupiter approached the god-like Ganymede as an eagle;

And approached the blonde-haired mother of Helen [Leda] as a swan.

You cannot compare them. Of both of these options,

Some like the one, and others like the opposite;

But I like both.


<Anonymous>

MAP:

Name:  ????

Date: 

Works:  Greek Anthology; Anthologia Graeca; Florilegii Graecii

 

REGION  UNKNOWN

Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans


BIO:

Timeline:

 The Greek Anthology is a modern collection of Greek lyric poetry compiled from various sources over the course of Greco-Roman literature. The current collection was created from two major sources, one from the 10th century CE and one from the 14th century CE. The anthology contains authors spanning the entirety of Greek literature, from archaic poets to Byzantine Christian poets. 

 Byzantine Greek

ARCHAIC: (through 6th c. BCE); GOLDEN AGE: (5th - 4th c. BCE); HELLENISTIC: (4th c. BCE - 1st c. BCE); ROMAN: (1st c. BCE - 4th c. CE); POST CONSTANTINOPLE: (4th c. CE - 8th c. CE); BYZANTINE: (post 8th c CE)





Wednesday, December 30, 2020

From Bride to Groom: A Medieval Tale of Iphis, Gower's Confessio Amantis IV.451ff

TRIGGER WARNING: infanticide (exposure)

Hic ponit exemplum super eodem, qualiter rex Ligdus uxori suae Thelacusae pregnanti minabatur, quod si filiam pareret, infans occideretur, quae tamen postea cum filiam ediderat, Ysis dea partus tunc presens filiam nomine filii Yphi appellari ipsamque more masculi educare admonuit, quam pater filium credens, ipsam in maritagium filiae cuiusdam principis aetate solita copulavit, sed cum Yphis debitum suae coniugi unde solvere non habuit, deos in sui adiutorium interpellat, qui super hoc miserti femineum genus in masculinum ob affectum naturae in Yphe per omnia transmutarunt. 

--John Gower, Confessio Amantis, Latin summary IV.451ff

When King Ligdus threatened his pregnant Thelacusa that if she gave birth to a daughter, she ought to expose it. However, when she gave birth to a daughter, the goddess Isis advised her to name the child “Iphis,” (the name of a son), and to raise the child as a boy. Iphis’ father believed that he had a son, and when the child was an appropriate age, he betrothed Iphis into wedlock with the daughter of a certain lord. But since Iphis did not have the appropriate parts to consummate the marriage [debitum suae coniugi unde solvere non habuit], Iphis begged the gods to help; they pitied Iphis and transformed the suppliant from a girl into a boy, in every way necessary.

JOHN GOWER

MAP:

Name:  John Gower

Date:  1330 – 1408 CE

Works:  Confessio Amantis

 

REGION  2

Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans


BIO:

Timeline:

 John Gower was a 14th century English poet. He was a contemporary and peer of Geoffrey Chaucer; both authors use overlapping characters and themes. Although his Confessio Amantis was written in English, the Latin text of this story was taken from the summaries that the author wrote for each chapter in Latin.

 LATE LATIN

Early Roman Lit: through 2nd c BCE: Republican Rome: through 1st c. BCE; Golden Age: 70 BCE to 18 CE; Silver Age: 18 CE to 150 CE; Age of Conflict: 150 CE - 410 CE; Byzantine and Late Latin: after 410 CE





Monday, December 28, 2020

From Bride to Groom: Aulus Gellius, Attic Nights, IX.4.7

TRIGGER WARNING: child exposure

Ex feminis,' inquit, 'mutari in mares non est fabulosum. Invenimus in annalibus Q. Licinio Crasso, C. Cassio Longino Consulibus, Casini puerum factum ex virgine sub parentibus; iussuque haruspicum deportatum in insulam desertam. Licinius Mucianus prodidit visum esse a se Argis Arescontem, cui nomen Arescusae fuisset; nupsisse etiam; mox barbam et virilitatem provenisse uxoremque duxisse: eiusdem sortis et Smyrnae puerum a se visum. Ipse in Africa vidi mutatum in marem die nuptiarum L. Cossicium civem Thysdritanum: vivebatque cum proderem haec."

--Aulus Gellius, Noctes Atticae  IX.iv.7, quoting Pliny the Elder

[Pliny the Elder] wrote, “Women transforming into men isn’t fiction. We see in the Annals that in the year when Q. Licinius Crassus and C. Cassius Longinus were consuls, a woman at Casinus transformed into a boy under the eyes of his parents, but he was exposed on a deserted island by order of the religious leaders [haruspex]. Licinius Mucianus revealed that he saw with his own eyes at Argos a man by the name of Arescontes, who used to be Arescusa; she had even been married to a man, but once they grew a beard and became a man, he married a woman. He saw the same thing happen (again, with his own eyes) to a boy at Smyrna. When I was in Africa, I myself saw L. Cossicius, a citizen of Thysdrus, transform into a man on his wedding day: and as of the time I am writing this, he’s still alive.

PLINY THE ELDER

MAP:

Name:  Gaius Plinius Secundus

Date:  23 – 79 CE

Works:  Naturalis Historia*

 

REGION  1

Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans


BIO:

Timeline:

 Pliny was an Italian-born Roman statesman and author who lived during the reigns of the early Roman emperors. He spent most of his life in service of his country; he ultimately gave his life in arranging the evacuation of the regions devastated by the eruption of Mt. Vesuvius in 79 CE. His work, the Natural History, is a 37-volume collection of art, history, and science of the ancient world.

 GOLDEN AGE ROME

Early Roman Lit: through 2nd c BCE: Republican Rome: through 1st c. BCE; Golden Age: 70 BCE to 18 CE; Silver Age: 18 CE to 150 CE; Age of Conflict: 150 CE - 410 CE; Byzantine and Late Latin: after 410 CE


 

AULUS GELLIUS

MAP:

Name:  Aulus Gellius

Date:  2nd. c. CE

Works:  Attic Nights

 

REGION  UNKNOWN

Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans


BIO:

Timeline:

 Aulus Gellius lived during the 2nd century CE. His work, the Attic Nights, are a collection of anecdotes about literature, history, and grammar.  From internal evidence, we can deduce that he was in the Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius’ social circle, having close friendships with Herodes Atticus and Fronto.

 SILVER AGE LATIN

Early Roman Lit: through 2nd c BCE: Republican Rome: through 1st c. BCE; Golden Age: 70 BCE to 18 CE; Silver Age: 18 CE to 150 CE; Age of Conflict: 150 CE - 410 CE; Byzantine and Late Latin: after 410 CE


 



 

Sunday, December 27, 2020

M/M: A Toxic Foundation, Conon, Narrationes XVI

TRIGGER WARNING: toxic  / abusive relationship

De Promacho & Leucocoma Gnossiis: urbs autem Cretae Gnossus est. Quomodo Promachus, pulchrum Leucocomam adolescentem adamarit: & quomodo labores atque certamina illi magna, & periculorum plena proposuerit, quae omnia Promachus potiundi spe superarit. Qui ubi ne per haec quidem voti compos evasit, Leucocomam vicissim molestia affecit, quando ultimum suum praemium (galea autem erat fama celebrata) alteri cuidam pulchro iuveni, Leucocoma spectante, imposuit. Hinc enim zelotypia victus hic, ferro se ipse interemit.

 Ἡ ιϚʹ τὰ περὶ Προμάχου καὶ Λευκοκόμα τῶν Κνωσσίων (πόλις δὲ Κρήτης ἡ Κνωσσός) διέξεισιν ὡς ἤρα Πρόμαχος νεανίου καλοῦ τοῦ Λευκοκόμα, ὡς ἆθλα αὐτῷ μεγάλα προὔτεινε καὶ κινδύνων μεστά, ὡς πάντα ὑπέστη Πρόμαχος ἐλπίδι τοῦ τυχεῖν, ὡς οὐδ´ οὕτω τυγχάνει, καὶ ἀντιλυπεῖ Λευκοκόμαν, τὸ τελευταῖον τῶν ἄθλων (κράνος δ´ ἦν περιβόητον) {ἐν} ἑτέρῳ καλῷ νεανίᾳ ὁρῶντος περιθεὶς τοῦ Λευκοκόμα· καὶ ὃς οὐκ ἐνεγκὼν τὴν ζηλοτυπίαν ξίφει ἑαυτὸν διεχρήσατο.

--Conon, Narrationes XVI; translated from the Greek by Thomas Gale [1675]

There’s a city in Crete named Knossos. Promachus was head-over-heels in love with the handsome youth Leucocoma [“Blondie”]. But Leucocoma kept making him do these difficult tasks & dangerous quests [to prove his affection], and Promachus kept doing them, hoping to win his heart. When he failed to win his heart, he hurt Leucocoma’s feelings by handing his final prize (a famous helmet he had won) to another hot youth instead while Leucocoma watched. Overcome by jealousy, Leucocoma killed himself with a sword.  

CONON

MAP:

Name:  Conon

Date:  1st c. BCE – 1st c. CE

Works:  Διηγήσεις / Narrationes

 

REGION  5

Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans


BIO:

Timeline:

 Conon was a Greek mythographer who lived during the reign of Augustus. Although his work, the Narrations, is lost, a summary of it was preserved by the Greek author Photius.

 ROMAN GREECE

ARCHAIC: (through 6th c. BCE); GOLDEN AGE: (5th - 4th c. BCE); ALEXANDRIAN: (4th c. BCE - 1st c. BCE); ROMAN: (1st c. BCE - 4th c. CE); POST CONSTANTINOPLE: (4th c. CE - 8th c. CE); BYZANTINE: (post 8th c CE)




 


Sunday, December 20, 2020

M/M: A Health Scare, Fronto Ad Caes. IV.12

 Trigger Warning: domestic violence (spanking)

Fronto Caesari.

1 Ut ego, di boni, consternatus sum lecto initio epistulae tuae! Quod ita scriptum fuit, ut tuum aliquod valetudinis periculum significari suspicarer. Postquam deinde illud periculum quod quasi tuum principio litterarum tuarum acceperam filiae tuae Faustinae fuisse aperuisti, quantum mihi permutatus est pavor! Nec permutatus modo, verum etiam nescio quo pacto nonnihil sublevatus. Dicas licet: “Leviusne tibi visum est filiae meae periculum quam meum? Tibine ita visum qui praefers Faustinam id tibi esse quod lucem serenam, quod diem festum, quod spem propinquam, quod votum impetratum, quod gaudium integrum, quod laudem nobilem nobilem atque incolumem?” Equidem ego, quid mihi legenti litteras tuas subvenerit, scio; qua vero id ratione evenerit nescio; nescio, inquam, cur magis ad tuum quam ad tuae filiae periculum consternatus sim, nisi forte, tametsi paria sint, graviora tamen videntur, quae ad aures prius accidunt. 2 Quae denique hujusce rei ratio tu facilius scias, qui de natura et sensibus hominum scis amplius aliquid meliusque didicisti. Ego, qui a meo magistro et parente Athenodoto ad exempla et imagines quasdam rerum, quas ille εἰκόνας appellabat, apte animo comprehendundas adcommodandasque mediocriter institutus sum, hanc hujusce rei imaginem repperisse videor, cur meus translatus metus levior sit mihi visus: Simile solere evenire onus grave umero gestantibus cum illud onus in sinistrum ab dextro umero transtulere, quamquam nihil de pondere deminutum sit, tamen ut oneris translatio videatur etiam et relevatio. 3 Nunc quoniam postrema parte epistulae tuae qua meliuscule jam valere Faustinam nuntiasti omnem mihi prosus metum ac sollicitudinem depulisti, non alienum tempus videtur de meo adversus te amore remissius aliquid tecum et liberalius fabulandi; nam ferme metu magno et pavore relevatis conceditur ludere aliquid atque ineptire. Ego quanto opere te diligam non minus de gravibus et seriis experimentis quam plerisque etiam frivolis sentio. Quae aut cujusmodi sint haec frivola indicabo.

4 Si quando te “somno leni”, ut poeta ait, “placidoque revinctus” video in somnis, numquam est quin amplectar et exosculer. Tum pro argumento cujusque somni aut fleo ubertim aut exulto laetitia aliqua et voluptate. Hoc unum ex Annalibus sumptum amoris mei argumentum poeticum et sane somniculosum. 5 Accipe aliud, rixatorium jam hoc et jurgiosum. Nonnumquam ego te coram paucissimis ac familiarissimis meis gravioribus verbis absentem insectatus sum: Olim hoc cum tristior, quam par era,t in coetum hominum progrederere vel cum in theatro tu libros vel in convivio lectitabas (nec ego dum tum theatris necdum conviviis abstinebam), tum igitur ego te durum et intempestivum hominem, odiosum etiam nonnumquam ira percitus appellabam. Quodsi quis alius eodem te convicio audiente me detrectaret, aequo animo audire non poteram. Ita mihi facilius erat ipsum loqui quam alios de te sequius quid dicere perpeti; ita ut Cratiam meam filiam facilius ipse percusserim, quam ab alio percuti viderim. 6 Tertium de meis frivoleis addam. Scis, ut in omnibus argentariis mensulis perguleis taberneis protecteis vestibulis fenestris usquequaque, ubique imagines vestrae sint volgo propositae, male illae quidem pictae pleraeque et crassa, lutea immo Minerva fictae scalptaeve; cum interim numquam tua imago tam dissimilis ad oculos meos in itinere accidit, ut non ex ore meo excusserit jactum osculei et savium.

7 Nunc ut frivolis finem faciam et convertar ad serium, hae litterae tuae cum primis indicio mihi fuerunt, quanto opere te diligam, cum magis perturbatus sum ad tuum quam ad filiae tuae periculum: Cum alioqui te quidem mihi, filiam vero tuam etiam tibi, ut par est, superstitem cupiam. Sed heus tu videbis, ne delator existas neve indicio pareas apud filiam, quasi vero ego te quam illam magis diligam. Nam periculum est, ne ea re filia tua commota, ut est gravis et prisca femina, poscenti mihi manus et plantas ad saviandum ea causa iratior subtrahat aut gravatius porrigat; cujus ego, dei boni, manus parvolas plantasque illas pinguiculas tum libentius exosculabor, quam tuas cervices regias tuumque os probum et facetum.

--Fronto, Ad Caes. IV.12

From Fronto, to my Caesar

O gods! I was so upset reading the beginning of your letter! The way you wrote it sounded like you had some mysterious illness! But later, when you revealed that the illness was your daughter Faustina’s, my panic shifted--not only shifted, but it lessened a little bit.

And now you’ll say, “Do you think my daughter’s dangerous illness is less important than mine? Doesn’t it seem so to you, who thinks Faustina is a ray of sunshine, a weekend, a hope at hand, a wish fulfilled, a wholesome joy, a noble and pure glory?”

And in turn, I don’t know why I felt the way I did as I read your letter, I don’t know why I am more upset about the thought of you getting ill than your daughter. But, I guess, even though they’re supposedly of equal value, I think I am more upset about the news of your illness because I heard about your illness first.

(2) You should know the reason why this is so better than I would, since you know about human nature & psychology and you are more learned about it than I am. I learned about this to the best of my ability [humblebragging] from my magister & parent Athenodotus, in examples & comparisons, which he called εἰκόνας. I guess I have an example, why my fear seems alleviated [when transferred to your daughter’s health]: those who are carrying a heavy load on one shoulder, when they shift the weight to the other shoulder, it seems that the weight is lessened, even though it remains the same. (3) And when finally, in the last bit of your letter when you told me that Faustina’s health improved a little bit, I tossed away all of my fear & concern, it seemed like an appropriate time for me drop a line to let you know about my love for you, for once I have let go my great fear and panic, I need to loosen up a bit and have a bit of fun. For I know how great I care for you [diligam], not only in big, serious matters, but even more in frivolous ones.  And let me tell you about this kind of frivolity:

(4) Whenever I am “bound in light and peaceful sleep,” [as the poet Ennius calls it], if I see you in my dreams, I cannot resist to embrace or kiss you. Then, depending on the type of dream it is, I either weep my eyes out or I revel in happiness and pleasure. This quote from the Annals is a declaration of my love, albeit a poetic and dreamy one.

(5) Or, take another example, one that is gossipy and begrudging. Sometimes I complain about you to others with fairly strong words (but words out of love!) when you’re not around. Like the time you were in a bad mood out in public, or when you had the nasty habit of reading books in the theater or at dinner parties (back when I actually went to the theater and dinner parties). I was mad, and called you an old fogey and a stick-in-the-mud. But if somebody else called you that in my presence, it made me upset. And so it seems easier to say it than to hear it said by another, just like I feel it’s easier to spank my daughter Cratia than to see her hit by someone else.

(6) Alright, I’ll add a third instance. You know that in the awning-covered shops and vestibules and windows and storefronts, there are these mass-produced images of you (a lot of them are poorly made!). Yet whenever your image meets my eyes, I can’t help but blow it a kiss.

(7) Ok, enough play: let me return to serious matters. Your letter reminded me how much I care [diligam] about you, since I was more upset about your illness than your daughter’s. I hope you get better for my sake, and I hope your daughter gets better, for your sake, as well. But ack! See to it that you don’t rat me out to your daughter that I love you more than her.  She might get upset (since she’s an old fashioned [prisca] gal), and she won’t give me her feet & hands so I can kiss them, or she’ll only do it begrudgingly. And, heavens!, I’ll kiss those little hands & chubby feet as lovingly as I kiss your royal neck and your pleasant and serene face.

ENNIUS

MAP:

Name:  Quintus Ennius

Date:  239 – 169 BCE

Works:  Annals

 

REGION  1

Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans


BIO:

Timeline:

Although widely considered the father of Roman literature, little is known about the works of Ennius and even less is known about his life. It is said that he was born in Rudiae (modern Italy) and served in the Second Punic War. Although he was a prolific author, composing the Annals, (Rome’s first historical epic) and other epic poems, only fragments of these remain extant.

 EARLY ROMAN LITERATURE

Early Roman Lit: through 2nd c BCE: Republican Rome: through 1st c. BCE; Golden Age: 70 BCE to 18 CE; Silver Age: 18 CE to 150 CE; Age of Conflict: 150 CE - 410 CE; Byzantine and Late Latin: after 410 CE





FRONTO

MAP:

Name:  Marcus Cornelius Fronto  

Date:  100 – 160 CE

Works: Letters

 

REGION  3

Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans


BIO:

Timeline:

Fronto was a Roman statesman born in Cirta (Numidia, located in northern Africa) whose rhetorical and literary abilities earned him the nickname “Second Cicero.” He was tutor and mentor to the future Roman emperors Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus; his correspondence with them provides unique insight into the personal lives of much of the Antonine dynasty.

 SILVER AGE LATIN

Early Roman Lit: through 2nd c BCE: Republican Rome: through 1st c. BCE; Golden Age: 70 BCE to 18 CE; Silver Age: 18 CE to 150 CE; Age of Conflict: 150 CE - 410 CE; Byzantine and Late Latin: after 410 CE





Tuesday, December 8, 2020

M/M: I'm Not Jealous, But... Catullus 24

O qui flosculus es Iuventiorum,

non horum modo, sed quot aut fuerunt

aut posthac aliis erunt in annis,

mallem divitias Midae dedisses

isti, cui neque servus est neque arca,

quam sic te sineres ab illo amari.

'qui? non est homo bellus?' inquies. est:

sed bello huic neque servus est neque arca.

hoc tu quam lubet abice elevaque:

nec servum tamen ille habet neque arcam.

---Catullus 24

Juventius, the tender bud of your family, 

the best there is, 

there ever was, 

or ever will be, 

I would rather you give the wealth of Midas 

to that guy (a man, I might add, who doesn't even have a slave or a bank account!)

than for you to allow yourself to be courted by him. 

"But isn't he just dreamy?" you say.

Sure, he's nice, but he doesn't even have a slave, or a bank account!

Fine. Mock my words and dismiss them, 

but it won't change the fact that he doesn't even have a slave or a bank account!   

CATULLUS

MAP:

Name:  Gaius Valerius Catullus

Date:  84 – 54 BCE

Works:  Poems

 

REGION  1

Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans


BIO:

Timeline:

Catullus was a Roman statesman born in Verona  (Cisalpine Gaul, located in northern Italy) who lived during the tumultuous last days of the Roman Republic.  His poetry offers rare insight into the mores of the time period. Like Propertius and Tibullus, Catullus used a pseudonym for the objects of his attention; many of his love poems were addressed to either “Lesbia” or “Juventius.”

 GOLDEN AGE

Early Roman Lit: through 2nd c BCE: Republican Rome: through 1st c. BCE; Golden Age: 70 BCE to 18 CE; Silver Age: 18 CE to 150 CE; Age of Conflict: 150 CE - 410 CE; Byzantine and Late Latin: after 410 CE










Saturday, December 5, 2020

Sappho Speaks: Some Fragments


Haec vero nunc amicis meis voluptati futura canam,

 ... Τάδε νῦν ἐταίραισ

ταῖσ ἔμαισι τέρπνα κάλωσ ἀείσω. [transcription]

Now I will sing these [delights] beautifully for my [girl]friends.


--Sappho fragment 28 [Cox 11], Translated into Latin  by Christian Wolf


******

Stes coram amice, et oculorum expande gratiam.

Στᾶθι κἄντα φίλοσ,....
καὶ τὰν ἔπ᾽ ὄσσοισ ἀμπέτασον χάριν.

Dear one* [masculine], show me the kindness of your eyes.

Haec vero nunc amicis meis voluptati futura canam,

--Sappho fragment 38 [Cox 27], Translated into Latin  by Christian Wolf

 

SAPPHO

MAP:

Name:  Σαπφώ / Sappho

Date:  630 – 570 BCE

Works:  <lost: only fragments remain>

 

REGION  5

Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans


BIO:

Timeline:

Sappho was universally applauded by the ancient world as the “Tenth Muse.” Because she was one of the earliest Greek lyric poets, there is very little definitive information on Sappho’s life.  It is generally agreed that Sappho was a wealthy noblewoman from the island of Lesbos who had three brothers and a daughter named Kleis. She used her prominent social position to support a cohort of other women artists, and composed many poems about them, expressing her love for them, praising their beauty, and celebrating their marriages. Whereas earlier Greek poetry was epic poetry with serious themes of gods, warfare, and the state, Sappho’s lyric poetry is emotional, intimate and personal. Her poetry centers around womanhood and womanly love, providing rare insight into social mores of the time period. The modern term “lesbian” (a woman who is attracted to another woman) reveals the longevity of her impact upon western culture [NOTE: Although “lesbian” is the accepted term in modern English, authors in the ancient world used a different word for a homosexual woman, and only occasionally used the term “lesbian” euphemistically]. Unfortunately, although her poetry was universally revered by the Greeks and Romans alike, Sappho’s works only exist as fragments, adding mysterious allure to her larger-than-life status but unfortunately hindering our understanding of her life and thoughts.

 Archaic Greek

ARCHAIC: (through 6th c. BCE); GOLDEN AGE: (5th - 4th c. BCE); ALEXANDRIAN: (4th c. BCE - 1st c. BCE); ROMAN: (1st c. BCE - 4th c. CE); POST CONSTANTINOPLE: (4th c. CE - 8th c. CE); BYZANTINE: (post 8th c CE)




 

Wednesday, November 25, 2020

A Lesson Plan: Counting Kisses, A Lesson in Hyperbole

 

“Counting Kisses:”

A Lesson Plan in Hyperbole

Objective:

Students Will Be Able To:  analyze the hyperbolic trope of counting kisses in the poems of Catullus and Martial to infer some perspectives of Roman sexuality

Essential Questions

·         What is hyperbole?

·         Who was Catullus? What was his contribution to Roman literature?

·         Who was Martial? What was his contribution to Roman literature?

·         How do you count in Latin?

Do Roman poets use different imagery in erotic poetry to men vs. to women? 

LGBT Meets SPQR Lesson Plan 10: Counting Kisses, A Lesson in Hyperbole


From Sappho to Aphrodite: Fragments

Fragment LV (Cox 1925 version # 84)

Dormivi in somnis una cum Cypride

Προσελεξάμης όναρ κυπρογενεία

I have lain beside Aphrodite in dream...


Fragment XIII: (Cox 1925 version #56)

Sappho, cur omniopulentiam Venerem…?

Πσάπφοι τί τὰν πολύολβον Ἀφρόδιταν; 

Sappho, why does [no verb] many-gifted Venus?

 --Translated from the Greek by Johannis Christianus Wolfius

 


SAPPHO

MAP:

Name:  Σαπφώ / Sappho

Date:  630 – 570 BCE

Works:  <lost: only fragments remain>

 

REGION  5

Region 1: Peninsular Italy; Region 2: Western Europe; Region 3: Western Coast of Africa; Region 4: Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean; Region 5: Greece and the Balkans


BIO:

Timeline:

Sappho was universally applauded by the ancient world as the “Tenth Muse.” Because she was one of the earliest Greek lyric poets, there is very little definitive information on Sappho’s life.  It is generally agreed that Sappho was a wealthy noblewoman from the island of Lesbos who had three brothers and a daughter named Kleis. She used her prominent social position to support a cohort of other women artists, and composed many poems about them, expressing her love for them, praising their beauty, and celebrating their marriages. Whereas earlier Greek poetry was epic poetry with serious themes of gods, warfare, and the state, Sappho’s lyric poetry is emotional, intimate and personal. Her poetry centers around womanhood and womanly love, providing rare insight into social mores of the time period. The modern term “lesbian” (a woman who is attracted to another woman) reveals the longevity of her impact upon western culture [NOTE: Although “lesbian” is the accepted term in modern English, authors in the ancient world used a different word for a homosexual woman, and only occasionally used the term “lesbian” euphemistically]. Unfortunately, although her poetry was universally revered by the Greeks and Romans alike, Sappho’s works only exist as fragments, adding mysterious allure to her larger-than-life status but unfortunately hindering our understanding of her life and thoughts.

 Archaic Greek




ARCHAIC: (through 6th c. BCE); GOLDEN AGE: (5th - 4th c. BCE); ALEXANDRIAN: (4th c. BCE - 1st c. BCE); ROMAN: (1st c. BCE - 4th c. CE); POST CONSTANTINOPLE: (4th c. CE - 8th c. CE); BYZANTINE: (post 8th c CE)